Cetus AK 77 - History

Cetus AK 77 - History

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An equatorial constellation.

(AK-77: dp. 4,023, 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11"; dr 28'4"; s. 12
k.; cpl 198; a. 1 5", 1 3"; cl. Crater)

Cetus (AK-77) was Iaunched 21; December 1942 by Permanente Metals Corp., Yard No. 2, Richmond, Calif., as George B. Cortelyou under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. N. F. Potter, acquired by the Navy 4 January 1943, and commissioned 17 January 1943, Lieutenant Commander N. T. Gansa, USNR, in command.

Cetus' assignment, for which she sailed from San Francisco 1 February 1943, was carrying cargo among South Pacific bases, and from ports in New Zealand She arrived at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 24 February, and began her share of the buildup of Solomon and Society Islands bases from which naval forces fought north through the Bismarcks. On 12 July 1944, she sailed from Guadalcanal for Eniwetok, where she prepared for her support of the invasion of Guam. She put to sea again 23 July, and arrived off Guam 27 July, 6 days after the initial assault. With bitter fighting continuing ashore, Cetus offloaded her much needed cargo over reefs and beaches, then returned to the South Pacific.

In September and October 1944, Cetus brought cargo some of which eventually played its part in the liberation of the Philippines, from Espiritu Santo to Ulithi and Manus. Cetus lay just outside Manus Harbor 10 November when ammunition ship Mount Hood ( AE-11) exploded but escaped injury. She returned to Auckland,and Wellington, New Zealand, to load cargo after brief overhaul, and on 18 March 1945 arrived at Guam to aid in preparations for the invasion of Okinawa, carrying cargo to Saipan, and then to Ulithi. On 26 April she herself arrived off Okinawa, with cargo to support the determined fighting ashore. Cetus unloaded under the constant hazard of enemy air and surface suicide attack, but received no injury. She then sailed for San Francisco, arriving on 12 June for a major overhaul which kept her there until after the close of the war. She proceeded on to Norfolk, VA., where she was decommissioned 20 November 1945 and returned to the Maritime Commission the following day.

Cetus received two battle stars for World War II service.

Draco towed YFD-21 from Seattle, Washington, by way of Pearl Harbor to Espiritu Santo, arriving 5 May 1943. She carried cargo from Auckland, New Zealand, to bases on Nouméa, Espiritu Santo, Guadalcanal, and the Fiji Islands, and acted in support of the consolidation of the Solomons, the invasions of Cape Torokina, Bougainville, and Emirau. From 27 July to 10 August 1944 she unloaded cargo at Guam in the capture and occupation of that island, then returned to cargo runs between New Zealand and the Solomons until arriving at Ulithi 26 May 1945. [4]

Draco sailed from Ulithi 20 June 1945, for Okinawa, where she discharged Army supplies from 26 June to 12 July. Sailing by way of Guadalcanal to load salvaged equipment and vehicles, Draco arrived at Tacoma, Washington, 27 August 1945. [4]

Records of United States Air Force Commands, Activities, and

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the U.S. Air Force in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government. Records of the Army Air Forces, RG 18.
Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff), RG 341.
Records of Joint Commands, RG 349.


1,837 rolls of microfilm

Textual Records: Security-classified and unclassified microfilm copies of records held in the U.S. Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, consisting of air force unit histories with accompanying issuances, correspondence, tables, charts, and reports, 1920-73.

Related Records: Microfilm copies of these records are also available at the Office of Air Force History, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, DC.


History: Airplane Engineering Department, Aviation Section, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, U.S. Army, established October 13, 1917. Redesignated Airplane Engineering Division and transferred to Bureau of Aircraft Production, August 31, 1918. Redesignated Technical Division, January 1, 1919. Redesignated Engineering Division, Air Service, May 13, 1919. Redesignated Materiel Division, Air Corps, October 15, 1926. Redesignated Materiel Center (MC), Army Air Forces (AAF), March 6, 1942. Redesignated Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC), by General Order 16, MC, April 6, 1942. New organization, designated Engineering Division, established under AFMC by Notice 103, AFMC, June 7, 1942. AFMC redesignated successively Materiel Command, April 15, 1943 AAF Materiel Command, June 15, 1944 AAF Materiel and Services Command, summer 1944 AAF Technical Service Command, September 1, 1944 Air Technical Service Command, July 1, 1945 and Air Materiel Command (AMC), March 13, 1946. Engineering Division transferred from AMC to Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) by Notice 77, AMC, April 3, 1951. ARDC redesignated Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) and Engineering Division redesignated Aeronautical Systems Division of AFSC, effective April 1, 1961, by Letter AFOMO 590M, Department of the Air Force (DAF), March 20, 1961.

Note: For administrative histories of the air force organization at the highest echelon, SEE 18.1, 18.2, 18.5, 18.7, 341.1, and 341.2.

Textual Records: Central decimal correspondence, 1916-49 (1,774 ft.). Research and development project contract files, 1921-51 (3,438 ft.). Microfilm copy of research and development technical reports, 1928-51 (400 rolls).

Related Records: Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics, RG 72.


History: Research and Development Command, USAF, consisting of research and development units formerly under Air Materiel Command, established January 23, 1950. Became operational February 1, 1950. Redesignated Air Research and Development Command, September 16, 1950. Redesignated Air Force Systems Command, effective April 1, 1961, by AFOMO 590M, DAF, March 20, 1961.

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Orders and directives of the 6594th Aerospace Test Wing, Ballistic Missile Division, 1961-65.

Motion Pictures (40 reels): Staff Film Reports series, produced by the Air Research and Development Command to document technical advances in the development of aircraft, missiles, and weapons systems, 1954-57. SEE ALSO 342.12.


Textual Records: Records of the Junior Operations Branch, Junior Program Division, Headquarters Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, consisting of Junior Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps unit files, 1968-81.


Note: This subgroup includes approximately 2 lin. ft. of records in process of reallocation from Record Group 338, Records of U.S. Army Commands, 1942-. Summary descriptions of these records are enclosed in braces <>.

342.6.1 Records of Griffis Air Force Base, Rome, NY

Textual Records:

342.6.2 Records of Homestead Air Force Base, FL

History: Activated April 1941. Designated Homestead Airfield September 16, 1942. Became operational November 1942. Inactivated December 14, 1945. Reactivated January 5, 1953. Redesignated Homestead Air Force Base, March 3, 1953.

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Real property case files of the 31st Civil Engineering Squadron, 31st Combat Support Group, 1953- 66. News releases of the Homestead AFB Public Information Office (Directorate of Information, Headquarters, 19th Bomb Wing [Heavy], Strategic Air Command), 823d Support Group, 1965.

342.6.3 Records of Sundance Air Force Base, WY

Textual Records (in Denver): Miscellaneous program correspondence, 1963-68.

1934, 1943-44, 1953, 1955

History: Established under the Proving Ground Command, AAF, at Eglin Field, FL, by directive from Maj. Gen. Muir S. Fairchild, Director, Military Requirements, HQAAF, to Brig. Gen. Grandison Gardner, Commanding General, Proving Ground Command, AAF, September 20, 1942. Transferred to Office of Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Intelligence, HQAAF, and relocated to New York City, October 1943. Transferred to Tactical Center, AAF, Orlando Field, FL, and redesignated Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch, April 1944. Deactivated, October 1945. Reactivated by directive from Commanding General, USAF, to Commanding General, Air University, USAF, February 26, 1947.

Textual Records: Copy of a report by Charles A. Lindbergh on the Greenland-Iceland transatlantic route, 1934. Activity report of the Ice Cap Detachment, Greenland Base Command, 1943-44. Instructor's manual for the Arctic, prepared by Dr. Vilhjahmur Stefansson, 1943. National Geographic Society survey of literature on the Greenland ice cap, 1953. Report on the use of ice for aircraft landing strips, 1955.


History: For an administrative history of ACIC and its predecessors, SEE 456.2, "Air Force Predecessors," in RG 456, Records of the Defense Mapping Agency.

Maps and Charts: Sets of published world aeronautical, pilotage, approach, and strategic planning charts, with index charts, 1947-71 (4,111 items). Charts of the surface of the moon, and a lunar photomap atlas, 1960-62 (347 items).


Note: This subgroup includes approximately 6 lin. ft. of records in process of reallocation from Record Group 338, Records of U.S. Army Commands, 1942- . Summary descriptions of these records are enclosed in braces <>.


Textual Records (in Anchorage): History of Alaska Communications System during World War II, September 1945. Cable ship operational histories, 1902-32. Publicity scrapbooks, 1942-56. Weekly reports of tests, 1960-62.

Related Records: Additional records of the Alaska Communications System in RG 111, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer.


SEE Maps and Charts UNDER 342.8.


Air Force Digest series, 1953-55 (65 reels). Air Force News Review series, 1939-59 (349 reels). Armed Forces Information Films series, 1950-63 (46 reels). Tarzon Bomb, documenting bomb development, 1963 (2 reels). General Holtoner and Bill Holden - Sound Barrier, documenting the actor's visit to an Air Force base and his ride in a jet fighter, 1956 (1 reel). Film Reports series, 1958-66 (153 reels). Film Training Aids series, 1953-63 (103 reels). Department of Defense News Releases series, 1952-54 (410 reels). Report to the Armed Forces series, documenting the preparations for a nuclear detonation on Eniwetok Island and the construction of the air base at Thule, Greenland, 1953 (6 reels). Special Film Projects series, 1943-64 (1,785 reels). Technical Film Reports series, documenting the development of the Snark long-range missile system, 1950-55 (9 reels). Training Films series, 1942-63 (208 reels). Project Crossroads atomic bomb tests, Bikini Atoll, 1946 (77 reels). Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945 (133 reels). Gun Sight Aiming Point series, consisting of Korean War gun camera footage, 1951-53 (36 reels). U.S. Air Force activities in Greenland, Labrador, Washington State, and Alaska in support of the International Geophysical Year, 1953-59 (75 reels). USAF series, consisting of edited and unedited footage documenting early aviation aerial warfare during World Wars I and II experimental aircraft and missile testing air force command activities during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and air operations in Southeast Asia, with accompanying index and documentation, 1900-72 (4,968 reels).

Finding Aids: Master catalogue cards and production files for the Air Force Digest series, Air Force News Review series, Film Training Aids series, New Releases series, Special Film Projects series, Technical Film Reports series, Training Films series, and USAF series. Master catalog cards only for Film Reports series. Production files only for Staff Film Reports series.


Security-classified correspondence of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence concerning tactical intelligence in Vietnam, 1955-1980. Security-classified records of the Strategic Air Command, consisting of Vietnam-related combat operations reports from the 8th Air Force, 1972-73 bombing mission messages, 1966 and correspondence and other records concerning target identifications and air operation, 1965-68. Military Airlift Command security-classifed logbooks, 1965-68. Security-classified records of the Pacific Air Forces, consisting of Southeast Asia "Project Checo" air operations reports, 1967 reports on the history of the 7th Air Force's U.S. Support Activities Group, 1973-75 comments on proposed changes to Pacific Air Forces regulations and procedures manuals, 1966-74 operational analysis reports, 1965-68 and a report on force reduction planning, 1968. Records of the 8th Air Force, consisting of correspondence relating to the readiness and reliability of Strategic Air Command forces and equipment, 1964-68 and a record set of superseded or rescinded Air Force publications, 1963-67. Security-classified records of the Seventh Air Force, consisting of combat operations reports from the 355th Tactical Fighter Wing and reports on 12th Tactical Fighter Wing missions, 1966-69. Security-classified Southeast Asia equipment operational requirements modification case files for the Seventh Air Force. Security-classified reports on the history of the 4th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 432nd Tactical Fighter Wing, 1970-75. Security-classified mixed files relating to various USAF combat operations and other activities during the Vietnam War, 1961-77. Security-classified records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, under the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Air Forces (CINCPACAF), consisting of daily and weekly statistical reports and summaries on air combat operations, 1968-74 aircraft loss or accident reports, 1968-73 and Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) emergency actions file, 1966-74.


Armament deliveries, Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, Kuwait, 1991, unclassified (110 items) and security-classified (295 items).

1954-85, 1991

Air Force public information programs, including "Great Moments To Music," "Our Date With History," and "Serenade in Blue" series, 1954-76 (21 items). "Country Music Time," 1961-85 (818 items). Iraqi prisoner of war interviews, Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, Kuwait, 1991 (18 items).


Photographs: Air force personnel and activities in Germany and Japan following World War II, including 1948-49 Berlin Airlift, 1945-62 (G, J 7,681 images). Scenes of post-World War II Europe, including war-damaged areas, industrial areas, urban and rural areas, and historic landmarks, 1946-48 (CGA, CGB, CGC, CGD 674 images). U.S. Air Force activities, military projects, and operations, including the war in Vietnam airmen and officers aircraft and missiles and airfields and bases in the United States and overseas, 1955-81 (AF, B, C 140,245 images).

Finding Aids: Subject and name indexes and shelf lists to series AF and C.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.

History and mythology

Cetus may have originally been associated with a whale, which would have had mythic status amongst Mesopotamian cultures. It is often now called the Whale, though it is most strongly associated with Cetus the sea-monster, who was slain by Perseus as he saved the princess Andromeda from Poseidon's wrath. Cetus is located in a region of the sky called "The Sea" because many water-associated constellations are placed there, including Eridanus, Pisces, Piscis Austrinus, Capricornus, and Aquarius. [ 2 ]

Cetus has been depicted many ways throughout its history. In the 17th century, Cetus was depicted as a "dragon fish" by Johannes Bayer. Both Willem Jansson Blaeu and Cellarius [ disambiguation needed  ] depicted Cetus as a whale-like creature in the same century. However, Cetus has also been variously depicted with animal heads attached to a piscine body. [ 2 ]

In non-Western astronomy

In Chinese astronomy, the stars of Cetus are found among two areas: the Black Tortoise of the North (北方玄武, Běi Fāng Xuán Wǔ) and the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ).

The Brazilian Tukano and Kobeua people used the stars of Cetus to create a jaguar, representing the god of hurricanes and other violent storms. Lambda, Mu, Xi, Nu, Gamma, and Alpha Ceti represented its head Omicron, Zeta, and Chi Ceti represented its body Eta Eri, Tau Cet, and Upsilon Cet marked its legs and feel and Theta, Eta, and Beta Ceti delineated its tail. [ 2 ]

77 Cross Examination Questions for Expert Witnesses

ð Isn’t it a fact that your professional license was suspended in 2014 in the State of Florida?

ð You were convicted of perjury in 2002, weren’t you?

ð You were censured in 2013 by your professional organization for giving misleading expert testimony, weren’t you?

ð You have lied many times in your life, haven’t you?

ð Are you the same [name of expert] whose expert opinion was found to be “wholly unreliable” by US District Judge Smith of New York?

ð Do you consider [such and such source] to be authoritative?

ð Do you agree or disagree with the following statement from [such and such source]?


ð You didn’t have all the time you needed to do a proper job in this case, did you?

ð You never reviewed [such and such document], did you?

ð You never visited the accident scene, did you?

ð You never read [so and so’s] deposition, did you?

ð You never personally did [such and such], did you?

ð You never were provided with [such and such document], were you?

ð You never even asked to do [such and such], did you?

ð There are bugs in the computer program you used, aren’t there?

ð Your opinion is based on a number of assumptions, isn’t it?

ð You cherry picked only the supportive studies, didn’t you?

ð You intentionally destroyed the notes you took in this case, didn’t you?

ð There were other tests you could have performed, weren’t there?

ð Is [such and such] one of the tests you could have performed?

ð You never performed [such and such test], did you?

Hired Gun/Professional Witness

ð You are being paid $500 an hour to be here today, aren’t you?

ð You are making over $200,000 a year serving as an expert witness, aren’t you?

ð You are here, because you are paid to be here, right?

ð You actively seek out more expert witness assignments, don’t you?

ð Is this a copy of your listing in SEAK’s National Directory of Expert Witnesses?

ð You are listed with several expert witness referral services, aren’t you?

ð You are a professional expert witness, aren’t you?

ð 100% of your expert witness work is on behalf of defendants, isn’t it?

ð You have been retained by retaining counsel on dozens of other cases, haven’t you?

ð If plaintiff loses this case, isn’t it a fact that you are highly unlikely to collect all the fees that you are owed?

ð The defendant is a friend of yours, isn’t he?

ð You own a large chunk of stock of the plaintiff’s company, don’t you?

ð You would like the plaintiff to prevail, wouldn’t you?

ð You live over 1,500 miles from here, don’t you?

ð As a Democrat, you believe in wealth redistribution, don’t you?

ð As a Republican, you believe in tort reform, don’t you?

ð You state on your web page do you not, quote, “Call me today and I’ll help you win your case” unquote, don’t you?

ð Did you state at your deposition [such and such which is inconsistent with what you are saying today]?

ð Did you write in [article] [such and such which is inconsistent with what you are saying today]?

ð Did you write in [your report] [such and such which is inconsistent with what you are saying today]?

Influence of Retaining Counsel

ð You used those words in your report because retaining counsel asked you to use them, isn’t that right?

ð Counsel had you on a budget, didn’t he?

ð You told counsel exactly what he wanted to hear, didn’t you?

ð Retaining counsel helped you write your report, didn’t he?

ð You don’t have [such and such credential] do you?

ð You flunked your boards the first two times you took them, didn’t you?

ð You are a jack of all trades, master of none, aren’t you?

ð You have never published in your field, have you?

ð You have never been invited to present on this topic, have you?

ð You hold zero academic appointments, isn’t that correct?

ð You were a mediocre student, weren’t you?

ð You have never won any awards in your field, have you?

ð You haven’t any real world experience in this field in the last ten years, do you?

ð You are not really an expert in this area are you?

ð Even you would agree that our expert witness [Ms. So and So] is more qualified than you?

ð Your theory in this case was specifically developed for litigation purposes, wasn’t it?

ð Would you agree with me that your methodology is not generally accepted in the field?

ð You weren’t able to calculate a margin of error, were you?

ð Your methodology has never been subjected to peer review and publication, has it?

ð You never built a prototype of your proposed alternative design, did you?

ð You extrapolated, didn’t you?

ð You never ruled out [such and such alternative explanation], did you?

ð Your math is just plain wrong, isn’t it?

ð You didn’t comply with [such and such professional standard] in this case, did you?

ð You are not 100% sure of your opinion, are you?

ð You can’t provide any objective justification for that opinion, can you?

ð You are just saying what retaining counsel is paying you to say, isn’t that true?

ð You formed your opinion before you had all relevant information, didn’t you?

ð Your opinion is exaggerated, isn’t it?

ð Your opinion is the same in every case, isn’t it?

ð Are you aware of the 27 different mistakes in your report?

ð Your reports from other cases are in many ways identical to your report in the case, aren’t they?

ð Retaining counsel asked you to use those words in your report, didn’t he?

ð And you used those words despite not fully understanding what they mean, didn’t you?

ð You weren’t under oath when you wrote your report, were you?

ð Am I correct in assuming that you have heard of the expression “it wasn’t documented it wasn’t done?”

James J. Mangraviti, Jr., Esq., has trained thousands of expert witnesses through seminars, conferences, corporate training, training for professional societies, and training for governmental agencies including the FBI, IRS, Secret Service, and Department of Defense. He is also frequently called by experts, their employers, and retaining counsel to train and prepare individual expert witnesses for upcoming testimony. Mr. Mangraviti assists expert witnesses one-on-one with report writing, mentoring, and practice development. He is a former litigator who currently serves as Principal of the expert witness training company SEAK, Inc. ( ). Mr. Mangraviti received his BA degree in mathematics summa cum laude from Boston College and his JD degree cum laude from Boston College Law School. He is the co-author of twenty-seven books, including: How to Write an Expert Witness Report How to Prepare Your Expert Witness for Deposition How to Become a Dangerous Expert Witness: Advanced Techniques and Strategies The A–Z Guide to Expert Witnessing Depositions: The Comprehensive Guide for Expert Witnesses How to Excel During Depositions: Techniques for Experts That Work Writing and Defending Your Expert Report: The Step-by-Step Guide with Models The Biggest Mistakes Expert Witnesses Make and How to Avoid Them Cross-Examination: The Comprehensive Guide for Experts National Guide to Expert Witness Fees and Billing Procedures and How to Market Your Expert Witness Practice: Evidence-Based Best Practices. Mr. Mangraviti was the co-founder in 2000 of SEAK’s Expert Witness Directory ( ), which is an often-used national resource for attorneys to locate expert witnesses. He can be contacted at 978-276-1234 or [email protected]

Steven Babitsky, Esq., is the President and founder of SEAK, Inc., the Expert Witness Training Company. He was a personal injury trial attorney for twenty years and is the former managing partner of the firm Kistin, Babitsky, Latimer & Beitman. Steve has helped expert witnesses and their attorneys prepare for deposition in a broad range of cases, including antitrust, patent, medical malpractice, wrongful death, computer forensics, and many others. He has trained the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Federal Aviation Administration, and he has worked with numerous forensic and financial companies including Fortune 500 companies and has worked with numerous experts to help them expand and grow their practices. Mr. Babitsky is the co-author of the texts How to Market Your Expert Witness Practice: Evidence-Based Best Practices How to Become a Dangerous Expert Witness: Advanced Techniques and Strategies Writing and Defending Your Expert Report: The Step-by-Step Guide with Models How to Excel During Cross-Examination: Techniques for Experts That Work The A–Z Guide to Expert Witnessing How to Write an Expert Witness Report and How to Excel During Depositions: Techniques for Experts That Work. Attorney Babitsky is the co-developer and trainer for the “How to Be an Effective Expert Witness” seminar and has been the seminar leader since 1990 for the Annual National Expert Witness and Litigation Conference. Mr. Babitsky trains hundreds of experts every year.

Nadine Nasser Donovan, Esq., is a former trial lawyer with extensive litigation experience. She has been on the SEAK faculty since 2002 and has trained hundreds of experts. She is licensed to practice law in New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.

In addition to her work consulting and teaching for SEAK, Ms. Donovan is a partner in the Boston-based firm of Mulvey, Ennis, Keefe, and Donovan, LLC. Her practice area includes the defense of medical professionals in medical malpractice actions and before medical licensing boards. In addition, Ms. Donovan is a Legal Writing Instructor at Boston University School of Law, and an Adjunct Professor at New England School of Law, Boston, where she teaches a course in Medical Malpractice. Ms. Donovan also serves as a Dispute Resolution Arbitrator for the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

  • The Exxon-Valdez oil spill is the second largest oil-spill in U.S. history, the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico being the largest.
  • Since the area that experienced the most damage is not easily accessible, the clean up time was much longer. Which, consequently, created longer lasting damage to the area.
  • The oil spilled out over 1300 miles of coastline and 11,000 square miles of ocean.
  • The animals that call Prince William Sound home were all affected by this spill.

The story of the building of the trans-Alaska pipeline

Note: This Embedded video resides on the official Alaska National Parks YouTube channel


>>Oil, hot crude, flows from the richest wells on the frozen arctic shore.

>>So much effort at such great cost to be ready to carry a 12 million barrel daily capacity

>>It took $8 billion, 20,000 workers, 12-hour days, and 7-day weeks, to finish it in three years, inside the deadline.

>>First, they built the road, 360 miles long, supplying 30 construction camps, using extra gravel to insulate the permafrost.

>>Then they needed supports to raise up the pipeline to prevent it from heating up the ground.

>>Half of the pipeline rests on 78,000 supports, 60 feet apart.

>>It’s a new design for constructing to be part of the land so caribou can march under it,

and earthquakes can rock and sway it.

>>Then the pipe 70,000 sections joined and laid, then buries or raised, crossing 3 mountain ranges, 800 riverbeds, tundra, forests, and lakes, all the way from the arctic to the pacific.

>>And now, from the richest oil field in America, 35,000 gallons of oil can flow every minute through a 48-inch pipe stretched 800 miles, the length of Alaska, to the ice-free port of Valdez.

>>In April, 1974, it began with the haul road, and on August 1, 1977, this film documented the first tanker leaving for the south, full of oil.

1922: The Knickerbocker Storm

On January 27 and 28, 1922, Washington, D.C., was hit with 28 inches of snow, the most the capital has ever received in one blizzard. Bringing moist air from the south, the storm was blocked by a northern system and stalled over D.C. before heading out to sea. On the evening of the 28th, the storm slowed down and people could finally leave their homes. Some went to the Knickerbocker Theater in Adams Morgan to catch a silent film. During the show, the roof collapsed under the weight of the snow, and beams, concrete, bricks, and plaster rained down on the audience. The collapse killed 98 people and injured 133.

Front page of the Post Crescent in Appleton, WI, November 13, 1940.

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Sea temp depth: 7.3 m below MLLW

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The Suburban tractor was introduced in 1959 as a David Bradley and evolved over the next six years into iconic Sears Suburban tractor. The Suburban was the heavy duty workhorse of the Sears lineup until 1979. The Suburban had one of the widest arrays of implements of all the garden tractors. The Suburban was available over the years with engines of horse power ratings from 10 to 18.

Oh Golly: A Brief History Of The Golliwog

January 1919: Fancy dress for an ‘American’ night at Princes a woman dressed as a nurse and two men in ‘golliwog’ outfits which are based on the appearance of a gallant hero in a series of children’s books in verse by US writer Bertha Upton. (Photo by A. R. Coster/Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

CAROL Thatcher’s “golliwog” remark has put the issue into the news for the first time in forty years.

Carol Thatcher’s “golliwog” remark has put the issue into the news for the first time in four months. As recently as October 2008 the Enid Blyton shop was under attack for stocking gollies. And in four months’ time another golly non-story will probably come along

Although I find it amazing that the views of a woman who dresses like a Jimmy Savile impersonator are taken seriously enough to launch a national debate, I acknowledge that there is a serious issue at stake regarding banning/free speech etc.

What I find incomprehensible is the endless argument about the golliwogs themselves.

20th February 1962: A black-faced brightly dressed soft doll with fuzzy hair, named ‘Golliwog’ after a character in a book by American writer Florence Kate Upton. His name has since been shortened to Golly, thus removing the offensive term ‘wog’. (Photo by Chaloner Woods/Getty Images)

The “respectable’ argument put forward in defence of golliwogs is that they are dolls, not people, and therefore not racist.

(The racist version would be that they are friendly little fellows who bear no relation to the dark menace that haunts our streets.)

Another point that’s often made is that children think of them as dolls and are completely unaware of their controversial nature, so what’s the harm?

Today’s “gollies” as they are now known are indeed friendly little fellows, and are unlikely to be taken as anything other than toys by British children in the 21st century.

But what is strange is why anyone tries to deny the racial connection, which well documented as well as being completely obvious to anyone with half a brain.

For the record he original Golliwog (spelt Golliwogg) was based on a “Negro minstrel doll” and appeared in a book by Florence Kate Upton in 1895. He is described as “a horrid sight, the blackest gnome”. Nevertheless, he is “lovable” and basically benign.

Half a century later, Enid Blyton’s Gollywog books appeared, relating the adventures of three little fellows called Golly, Woggy and Nigger, who liked nothing better than to stride along, in Blyton’s own words, “arm-in-arm, singing merrily their favourite song – which, as you may guess, was Ten Little Nigger Boys”.

Hmm. Then there were her Noddy books, in which they feature once more. In one incident, Noddy is attacked by golliwogs, who steal his car and leave him stranded.

21st December 1937: Nurses at the Royal Infirmary in Cardiff’s children’s ward shower a young patient with toys for Christmas. (Photo by Fox Photos/Getty Images)

The publishers of Agatha Christie’s 1939 novel Ten Little Niggers made the symbolic connection completely unambiguous. The cover showed a lynched golliwog hanging from a tree.

The Enid Blyton quote came from The Three Golliwogs, which was still being reprinted in its original form in 1968. Later versions changed some of the more sensitive parts.

By this time golliwogs were generally referred to as a “gollies”, and the gollies most likely to spring too mind were the ones on the Robertson’s jam label, with its vouchers for golly badges. These were more cartoon-like and less sinister looking.

All the same, even “golly” was still a controversial figure. The Average White Band were a Scottish soul outfit whose singer had a ginger afro. When they started, the logo on their drum kit (and the cover of their first album) was a white golly very like the Robertson’s version. This image, like their name, was obviously intended as a droll comment on the fact that they were a bunch of pasty-faced Jocks playing black music. But it’s interesting to note that by the time the band had broken through in America, they had replaced the golly with a new logo. (This featured the initials AWB in the shape of a woman’s bottom, and the irony is that this too would probably be considered offensive nowadays – but that’s another story…)

So here we are in 2009, and the “Negro minstrel doll” is still with us. Some people want him banned, others want him celebrated.

I don’t want him banned, any more than I want to ban weirdos from dressing up in Nazi uniforms and attending Second World War reenactment weekends in Kent.

Better to leave the golly fans to live in their 1950s fantasy world, surrounded by as many rag dolls as they like, while the rest of the world concentrates on more important issues.

Like Peaches Geldoff’s marriage and Wayne Rooney’s food vouchers.

For more gollies see

Watch the video: Ανεμολόγιο. Kάθε τόπος, μια ιστορία.. (February 2023).

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