Battle of Maria, 15 June 1809

Battle of Maria, 15 June 1809

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Battle of Maria, 15 June 1809

The battle of Maria of 15 June 1809 was a French victory that ended a brief Spanish threat to Saragossa. At the end of the second siege of Saragossa the French had two army corps in Aragon, but in April 1809 Napoleon decided to withdraw the 5th Corps, leaving Junot’s 3rd Corps to hold down the entire kingdom. Junot himself was to be replaced by General Suchet, but poor communications meant that there was a six week period in which Junot remained in command of the corps. During this period his corps suffered a series of defeats at the hands of the Spanish guerrillas, as well as being forced out of the town of Alcañiz (south east of Saragossa) by a new Spanish Army of the Right, under General Blake. When Suchet finally arrived to take command of the 3rd Corps, his first move was an attack on Blake. The resulting battle of Alcañiz of 23 May was only the second Spanish battlefield victory of the Peninsular War.

In the aftermath of the battle Suchet retreated back to Saragossa, where he spent the next three weeks attempting to restore the morale of his corps. While Suchet was doing this, Blake remained at Alcañiz, awaiting reinforcements, and three weeks after winning at Alcañiz with only 9,000 men was in charge of an army 25,000 strong. In contrast Suchet received very few reinforcements, although 3,000 men were promised. The total force available at the start of the battle of Maria would be larger than that defeated at Alcañiz, but only because one division that missed the first battle was available for the second.

Once his reinforcements arrived, Blake made his move. Rather than advance along the main road from Alcañiz to Saragossa, along the Ebro, he decided to cut west across the mountains to the Huerba valley, and then advance north along that river towards Saragossa. Alcañiz had convinced him that his army could fight a defensive battle. The move to the Huerba threatened Suchet’s lines of communications north west towards Tudela and onwards to France. He would have to either abandon Saragossa without a fight, or attack the Spanish on ground of their own choosing.

By 14 June Blake had reached the Huerba, and his outposts were within ten miles of the city. For some reason he had deliberately divided his army in two. One division, under General Areizaga, was advancing down the right bank of the Huerba, while the other two divisions, under Blake, were on the left bank. The two armies were separated by a gap of six or seven miles and by the river.

This gave Suchet a chance to defeat the Spanish in detail. Of the 10,500 men available to him, 1,000 were left guard Saragossa against any surprise attack. 2,000 were posted on the right bank of the Huerba with orders to stop, or at least slow down, any attack by Areizaga. This left Suchet with 7,500 infantry, 800 cavalry and twelve guns to attack Blake’s two divisions.

On the morning of 15 June Blake’s army formed up in line of battle on a series of ridges that run down from the hills towards the Huerba. Roca’s division was on the northern-most ridge, with Lazan’s on the next ridge to the south, and the cavalry in the gap between the two. The French formed up on another line of hills one mile to the north. Suchet then held his ground, waiting for the promised 3,000 reinforcements, which by now were only a few miles from the battlefield.

Despite have chose to fight a defensive battle, Suchet’s inactivity provoked Blake into launching an attack on the French lines. The first Spanish attack, on the French left, was a minor affair, involving the Spanish skirmishers, but the second attack, on the French right, was made in more strength. Suchet responded by ordering the Polish lancers to attack the flank of the advancing column, while the 114th Regiment of the line attacked from the front. The Spanish attack was soon repulsed.

Suchet then responded with an attack of his own, using the 114th and 115th Regiments of the Line and the 1st Regiment of the Vistula, made against the same troops who had just attacked the French lines. The Spanish managed to hold off the French, and even forced Suchet to send in part of his very limited reserve, but this phase of the battle was brought to an end by a heavy hailstorm which blocked all visibility. During this hailstorm the French reinforcements finally arrived at the Abbey of Santa Fé, behind the French left. This convinced Suchet to launch a second attack, this time using his left to attack the Spanish right close to the Huerba. Three French infantry battalions were used to soften up the Spanish lines, before the French cavalry charged through gaps in the French lines. The Spanish cavalry fled without offering any resistance, exposing the infantry on the Spanish right. The French cavalry turned on this infantry, destroying Blake’s right wing, and at the same time blocking his line of retreat back towards Areizaga.

Blake managed to partially save the situation. He formed a new line across the ridge, at ninety degrees to his original line, and conducted a fighting retreat, eventually escaping to the south at nightfall. Despite this his army had suffered dreadfully, losing 1,000 dead and at least 3,000 wounded. The French suffered between 700 and 800 casualties.

Somewhat to Suchet’s surprise, the Spanish did not immediately abandon their campaign. Blake’s army concentrated at Botorita, upstream from Maria, and then spent the next day in that position. Suchet responded by attempting to turn both Spanish flanks, but failed, and Blake was able to begin a retreat south-east across the mountains towards Belchite unhindered by the French. His army began to disintegrate during the retreat – 3,000 men deserted in two days, but despite arriving at Belchite with only 12,000 men, Blake decided to attempt to fight a third battle. This time his army simply collapsed (rout of Belchite), and when it came back together another 2,000 men had disappeared. The French grip on Saragossa had been saved.

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Mutiny on the Amistad

Early in the morning, enslaved Africans on the Cuban schooner Amistad rise up against their captors, killing two crewmembers and seizing control of the ship, which had been transporting them to a life of slavery on a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe, Cuba.

In 1807, the U.S. Congress joined with Great Britain in abolishing the African slave trade, although the trading of enslaved people within the United States was not prohibited. Despite the international ban on the importation of enslaved Africans, Cuba continued to transport captive Africans to its sugar plantations until the 1860s, and Brazil to its coffee plantations until the 1850s.

On June 28, 1839, 53 people recently captured in Africa left Havana, Cuba, aboard the Amistad schooner for a sugar plantation at Puerto Principe, Cuba. Three days later, Sengbe Pieh, a Membe African known as Cinque, freed himself and the other enslaved people and planned a mutiny. Early in the morning of July 2, in the midst of a storm, the enslaved people rose up against their captors and, using sugar-cane knives found in the hold, killed the captain of the vessel and a crewmember. Two other crewmembers were either thrown overboard or escaped, and Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montes, the two Cubans who had purchased the enslaved people, were captured. Cinque ordered the Cubans to sail the Amistad east back to Africa. During the day, Ruiz and Montes complied, but at night they would turn the vessel in a northerly direction, toward U.S. waters. After almost nearly two difficult months at sea, during which time more than a dozen Africans perished, what became known as the 𠇋lack schooner” was first spotted by American vessels.

On August 26, the USS Washington, a U.S. Navy brig, seized the Amistad off the coast of Long Island and escorted it to New London, Connecticut. Ruiz and Montes were freed, and the Africans were imprisoned pending an investigation of the Amistad revolt. The two Cubans demanded the return of their supposedly Cuban-born slaves, while the Spanish government called for the Africans’ extradition to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder. In opposition to both groups, American abolitionists advocated the return of the illegally bought people to Africa.

The story of the Amistad mutiny garnered widespread attention, and U.S. abolitionists succeeded in winning a trial in a U.S. court. Before a federal district court in Connecticut, Cinque, who was taught English by his new American friends, testified on his own behalf. On January 13, 1840, Judge Andrew Judson ruled that the Africans were illegally enslaved, that they would not be returned to Cuba to stand trial for piracy and murder, and that they should be granted free passage back to Africa. The Spanish authorities and U.S. President Martin Van Buren appealed the decision, but another federal district court upheld Judson’s findings. President Van Buren, in opposition to the abolitionist faction in Congress, appealed the decision again.

On February 22, 1841, the U.S. Supreme Court began hearing the Amistad case. U.S. Representative John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, who had served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829, joined the Africans’ defense team. In Congress, Adams had been an eloquent opponent of slavery, and before the nation’s highest court he presented a coherent argument for the release of Cinque and the 34 other survivors of the Amistad.

On March 9, 1841, the Supreme Court ruled, with only one dissent, that the Africans had been illegally enslaved and had thus exercised a natural right to fight for their freedom. In November, with the financial assistance of their abolitionist allies, the Amistad Africans departed America aboard the Gentleman on a voyage back to West Africa. Some of the Africans helped establish a Christian mission in Sierra Leone, but most, like Cinque, returned to their homelands in the African interior. One of the survivors, who was a child when taken aboard the Amistad, eventually returned to the United States. Originally named Margru, she studied at Ohio’s integrated and coeducational Oberlin College in the late 1840s before returning to Sierra Leone as evangelical missionary Sara Margru Kinson.

8 historical events that happened in June

Francisco Pizarro died as he had lived, sword in hand. Pizarro, who had defied the odds to bring down the Incas and conquer modern-day Peru for the Spanish, was almost 70 years old. As governor of New Castile (as Peru was then named), he had spent years locked in a bitter feud with a rival conquistador, Diego de Almagro. In 1538 Pizarro had had Almagro executed. But now the latter’s son – also Diego – wanted revenge.

Pizarro was dining in his palace in Lima when Almagro burst in with about 20 armed supporters. Most of the old man’s guests fled, but Pizarro stood his ground, reaching for his sword from where it hung on the wall. According to one account, he struck down two would-be assassins and ran a third through. While he struggled to draw out his sword, however, Almagro’s men stabbed him in the throat. Lying on the palace floor, Pizarro shouted: “Jesus!” The last thing he ever did was to draw a cross on the ground with his own blood and kiss it. The most ruthless conquistador of the age was dead.

Pizarro’s body was buried in Lima Cathedral, but it was not until 1977 that building workers found a lead box, bearing the inscription: “Here is the head of Don Francisco Pizarro Demarkes, Don Francisco Pizarro who discovered Peru and presented it to the crown of Castile.” Forensic scientists reported that the skull was broken by numerous violent blows – perhaps a fitting end for a man steeped in violence.

23 June 1940: Hitler crows over Paris

It was about 5.30 in the morning when Adolf Hitler’s plane landed at the edge of Paris. Three large Mercedes cars were waiting to take the conqueror into town, and the Nazi dictator knew exactly where he wanted to go first – the opera. As he told his minister, Albert Speer, Charles Garnier’s neo-baroque opera house was his favourite building in Paris. And now that the French capital had fallen to Germany’s all-conquering army, Hitler had the chance to live out a dream.

Hitler’s tour of Paris on 23 June 1940 – the only time he visited the city – was one of the greatest days of his life. France lay prostrate at his feet, the shame of 1918 finally avenged. As he toured the city, posing for pictures by the Eiffel Tower, he discussed plans for a victory parade. Yet he concluded that it was a bad idea: “I am not in the mood for a victory parade. We aren’t at the end yet.”

To Speer, the Nazis’ chief architect, Hitler waxed lyrical about the beauties of the French capital. But he was determined that Germany could do better. “Berlin,” he said later, “must be more beautiful. When we are finished in Berlin, Paris will be only a shadow.”

Hitler’s visit was astonishingly brief, and by nine in the morning he was already heading back to Germany. “It was the dream of my life to be permitted to see Paris,” he told Speer as they drove back to the airfield. “I cannot say how happy I am to have that dream fulfilled today.” Speer himself was struck by his master’s mood. “For a moment,” he wrote later, “I felt something like pity for him: three hours in Paris, the one and only time he was to see it, made him happy when he stood at the height of his triumphs.”

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16 June 1883: 183 children crushed to death in concert tragedy

The poster for Sunderland’s Victoria Hall seemed wonderfully enticing. “On Saturday Afternoon at 3 o’clock,” it said, “the Fays from the Tynemouth Aquarium Will Give a Grand Day Performance for Children – The Greatest Treat for Children Ever Given.” There would, it added, be prizes, “a handsome Present, Books, Toys, &c”. When Mr and Mrs Fay took the stage on 16 June 1883, an estimated 2,000 children were packed into the concert hall.

What followed was a tragedy of heartbreaking proportions. At the end of the show, an announcer declared that children with specially numbered tickets would get a prize on the way out. Meanwhile, performers began handing out treats to children in the front row. Many of the 1,100 children in the gallery rushed towards the stairs, worried they were going to miss out.

At the bottom, however, they found a narrow door, bolted to allow only one child through at a time. As more children stampeded down the stairs, a crush began to develop. Parents rushed to help, but could not get near the door.

Children started falling, bodies piling up near the door. By now it was obvious that a terrible disaster was under way. In all, 183 children died that day, some as young as three. In the aftermath, legislation provided for better emergency exits, with doors opening outwards, not inwards. Queen Victoria sent a heartfelt letter of condolence quoting the words of Jesus: “Suffer little children to come unto me… for such is the Kingdom of God.”

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11 June 323 BC: Alexander the Great dies after drinking binge

Alexander of Macedon, master of the world from the shores of the Adriatic to the mountains of Afghanistan, spent the early summer of 323 BC in Babylon. Only a year before, his troops had persuaded him to turn back from a planned invasion of India. But already he was planning new conquests, hoping to strike at the heart of Arabia. On top of that, the 32-year-old king was pressing forward with his plans to integrate Persians and Macedonians, even urging his officers to take Persian wives. And then, some time around the beginning of June, disaster struck.

Accounts of Alexander’s death differ widely. The most popular, told by the historian Plutarch, holds that he was taken ill after a drinking session with his friend Medius of Larissa. In the next few days, Alexander developed a fever. Although he managed to put in an appearance before his worried troops, his condition worsened until he could no longer speak. At last, some time in the night between 10 and 11 June, he died.

His death had a shattering impact. Within weeks the Macedonian empire was already falling apart, as his officers began to carve out their own rival dominions. Even Alexander’s sarcophagus, hijacked and taken to Alexandria, became a weapon in the civil war. “I foresee great contests,” he is supposed to have said, “at my funeral games.” He was right.

4 June 1989: Hundreds die in Tiananmen Square

Other notable June anniversaries

29 June 1613

When a cannon misfires during a performance of Henry VIII, accidentally igniting the theatre’s thatched roof, the Globe Theatre in Southwark burns to the ground.

3 June 1937

In a chateau near Tours, the Duke of Windsor – formerly Edward VIII – marries Wallis Simpson. His brother, George VI, forbids his other brothers from attending the nuptials.

7 June 1494

Spain and Portugal agree a treaty to divide the New World between them, carving up the newly discovered Americas along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands.

9 June 1934

The world’s most famous duck, Donald, makes his first appearance in the short Walt Disney cartoon The Wise Little Hen, based on the fairy tale of The Little Red Hen.

27 June 1358

Following the Treaty of Zadar, the Republic of Dubrovnik throws off Venetian rule and comes under the protection of Louis I of Hungary.

25 June 1978

In San Francisco, the artist Gilbert Baker designs a hippie-influenced rainbow flag with eight stripes, to be flown during the city’s Gay Freedom Day Parade.

This article was first published in the June 2015 issue of BBC History Magazine

Battle of Maria, 15 June 1809 - History

French Order of Battle for Friedland: 14 June 1807

The growing disorder in the Russian ranks provided the French gunners with a target which it was practically impossible to miss. Victor made the most of the opportunity and moved more than 30 guns to the front of his corps area. Commanded by the able artillery general Senarmont, the gunners manhandled their pieces boldly, starting at 1,600 yards, the range rapidly shortened to 600 paces, where the guns paused to pour a crippling salvo into the dense Russian masses. A short time later, the cannon were within 300, then 150, yards of the Russian front line. At last, the sweating gunners brought their smoking pieces to within 60 paces of Bennigsen&rsquos infantry. At such point-blank range, the French case-shot wrought terrible havoc upon their opponents, whole companies being reduced to gory shambles in a matter of seconds. The remnants of the Russian cavalry tried to destroy this impudent, death-dealing battery, but only shared the fate of their infantry colleagues.

-- David Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon

Best known for General de Division Hureau de Senarmont&rsquos &lsquoartillery charge&rsquo, the Battle of Friedland was fought on 14 June 1807 near the modern-day Russian city of Kaliningrad (formerly Konigsberg).

The battle can be divided into two phases: in the morning phase, Marshal Jean Lannes&rsquo Reserve Corps, along with two cavalry divisions (21,900 men and 33 guns), holds the advancing Russian army (46,000 men under General of Cavalry Leonti Leontievich, Baron Bennigsen) while French reinforcements gradually arrive in the afternoon phase, the reinforced Grand Armee under Napoleon goes over to the offensive, driving Bennigsen out of Friedland and across the Alle River.

Napoleon&rsquos losses were 10,400 killed and wounded (out of about 75,000-80,000 men total) Benningsen&rsquos army sustained 18,000 killed and wounded.

Researchers should note that French officers at the Battle of Friedland had not yet received their Napoleonic titles and should be referred to by their &lsquocommon&rsquo name examples include General de Division Etienne-Marie-Antoine Champion (comte de Nansouty), General de Brigade Pierre-Louis Binet (baron de Marcognet) and General de Brigade Antoine-Louis Popon (baron de Maucune). The sole exception was General de Division Alexandre-Antoine Hureau, baron de Senarmont, who held an ancien regime title.

A. Initial deployment (21,900 men and 33 guns)

Reserve Corps (15,470 men and 27 guns)

1st Brigade
General de Brigade Francois-Amable Ruffin

1st Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[1]
2nd Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[2]

2nd Brigade
General de Brigade Nicolas-Francois Conroux

3rd Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[3]
4th Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[4]

5th Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[5]
6th Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)[6]

7th Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)
8th Provisional Regiment (2 battalions)

2nd Division (8 battalions 4,440 men)
General de Division Jean-Antoine Verdier

3rd (Saxon) Division (part only 3 battalions, 3,900 men)
Generalleutnant Georg-Friedrich-August von Polenz

1st Brigade

Grenadier Battalion &lsquoCerrini&rsquo
Infantry Regiment &lsquoBevilaqua&rsquo (1 bn)

Reserve Corps Artillery (480 men and 27 guns)
Colonel Alexandre-Pierre Navelet de La Massoniere

11/1st Foot Artillery Regiment
15/1st Foot Artillery Regiment
2 Saxon foot artillery batteries

4/2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (1/2 battery &ndash 3 guns)

Reserve Cavalry (3,180 men and 3 guns)

2nd Dragoon Division (1,630 men)
General de Division Emmanuel de Grouchy

2/2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (1/2 battery &ndash 3 guns)

I Corps Light Cavalry Brigade (1,300 men)
General de Brigade Jean-Louis-Chretien Carriere

1st (Provisional) Grenadier Division&rsquos Cavalry Brigade (250 men)

B. Reinforcements (60,285 men and 122 guns)

VIII Corps (12,970 men and 28 guns)

1st Division (10 battalions 6,850 men)
General de Division Pierre-Louis Dupas

Wurzburg Infantry Regiment (2 battalions):

2nd (Polish) Division (4,060 infantry 700 cavalry)[8]
General de Division Jan-Henryk Dabrowski (dit &lsquoDombrowski&rsquo)

Infantry Brigade
General de Brigade Amilcar Kosinsky

1st Regiment, Polish-Italian Legion (2 battalions): Colonel Gregoire Chlopicki
2nd Regiment, Polish-Italian Legion (2 battalions): Colonel Simon Biatowieyski
3rd Regiment, Polish-Italian Legion (2 battalions): Colonel Pierre Swiderski

Polish-Italian Legion Cavalry Regiment (3 squadrons): Colonel Alexander Rozniecki

VIII Corps Artillery (1,360 men and 28 guns)
Colonel Basile-Guy-Marie-Victor Baltus de Pouilly

1/1st Foot Artillery Regiment
1/8th Foot Artillery Regiment
1 foot artillery battery (Polish)
1 horse artillery battery (Dutch)

I Corps (19,990 men and 30 guns)

1st Division (10 battalions 6,850 men)
General de Division Pierre Dupont

32nd Line Regiment (2 battalions): Colonel Luc Duranteau
96th Line Regiment (3 battalions): Colonel Jean Chrisostome Cales

2nd Division (8 battalions 5,970 men)
General de Division Pierre Bellon (dit &lsquoLapisse&rsquo)

3rd Division (8 battalions 5,490 men)
General de Division Eugene-Casimir Villatte

6/1st Foot Artillery Regiment
11/1st Foot Artillery Regiment
1/8th Foot Artillery Regiment
2/8th Foot Artillery Regiment
2/3rd Horse Artillery Regiment
3/3rd Horse Artillery Regiment

Two formations attached to I Corps:

4th Dragoon Division (1,840 men and 3 guns)
General de Division Armand Lebrun

3/2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (1/2 battery &ndash 3 guns)

Saxon Cavalry Brigade (700 men)
Major Johann-Adolf, Freiherr von Thielmann

Leibkurassier Chevauxleger Regiment (3 squadrons)
Karabinier Chevauxleger Regiment (3 squadrons)
Prinz Johann Chevauxleger Regiment (3 squadrons)

VI Corps (13,415 men and 22 guns)

39th Line Regiment (2 battalions): Colonel Jacques-Pierre Soyer
76th Line Regiment (2 battalions): Colonel Jean-Pierre-Antoine Faure-Lajonquiere[10]

2nd Brigade
General de Brigade Labassee[11]

3rd Division (3 battalions 1,200 men)
General de Division Brun[12]

VI Corps Artillery (315 men and 22 guns)
General de Division Jean-Nicolas Seroux

9/1st Foot Artillery Regiment (6 &ndash 12pdr)
10/1st Foot Artillery Regiment (6 &ndash 8 pdr)
12/1st Foot Artillery Regiment (4 &ndash 8pdr)
1/ 2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (3 &ndash 4pdr)
5/ 2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (3 &ndash 4pdr)

Two formations attached to VI Corps:

1st Dragoon Division (2,400 men and 3 guns)
General de Division Marie-Nicholas-Marie de Fay

2/2nd Horse Artillery Regiment (1/ 2 battery &ndash 3 guns)

2nd Hussar Regiment (3 squadrons)
2nd Cuirassier Regiment (3 squadrons)

Imperial Guard (8,170 men and 36 guns)

3rd Brigade (1,100 men)
Major-Colonel Joseph Boyer



[1] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 8th, 27th, 45th, 54th, 94th and 95th Line Regiments.

[2] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 9th Light Regiment and the 30th, 32nd, 33rd, 51st and 96th Line Regiments.

[3] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 10th, 24th and 26th Light Regiments and the 4th, 18th and 57th Line Regiments.

[4] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 17th and 21st Light Regiments and the 34th, 40th, 64th and 88th Line Regiments.

[5] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 6th and 16th Light Regiments and the 39th, 44th, 69th and 105th Line Regiments.

[6] This unit was composed of elite companies from the 7th and 16th Light Regiments and the 24th and 63rd Line Regiments.

[7] Harispe was promoted to Marshal of France by President Louis-Napoleon, later Emperor Napoleon III, on 11 December 1851.

[8] Several sources state that Dabrowski&rsquos two-brigade division was composed of the 2nd Polish Line, 3rd Polish Line, 4th Polish Line Regiments and the 1st Polish Chasseur and 5th Polish Chasseur Regiments. However, Polish infantry and cavalry units in 1807 all came from the &lsquoPolish-Italian Legion&rsquo (in French service from 2 February).

[9] Semelle was promoted to General de Brigade on 1 July 1807.

[10] Colonel Faure-Lajonquiere was mortally-wounded during the battle.

[11] No further biographical information was found on this officer.

[12] No further biographical information was found on this officer.

[13] Fresia was promoted to General de Division 11 days before the battle.

Continental Congress votes for independence from Britain

The Second Continental Congress, assembled in Philadelphia, formally adopts Richard Henry Lee’s resolution for independence from Great Britain. The vote is unanimous, with only New York abstaining.

The resolution had originally been presented to Congress on June 7, but it soon became clear that New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and South Carolina were as yet unwilling to declare independence, though they would likely be ready to vote in favor of a break with England in due course. Thus, Congress agreed to delay the vote on Lees Resolution until July 1. In the intervening period, Congress appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration of independence. Its members were John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert R. Livingston of New York and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. Thomas Jefferson, well-known to be the best writer of the group, was selected to be the primary author of the document, which was presented to Congress for review on June 28, 1776.

On July 1, 1776, debate on the Lee Resolution resumed as planned, with a majority of the delegates favoring the resolution. Congress thought it of the utmost importance that independence be unanimously proclaimed. To ensure this, they delayed the final vote until July 2, when 12 colonial delegations voted in favor of it, with the New York delegates abstaining, unsure of how their constituents would wish them to vote. John Adams wrote that July 2 would be celebrated as the most memorable epoch in the history of America. Instead, the day has been largely forgotten in favor of July 4, when Jeffersons edited Declaration of Independence was adopted.

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Battle of Maria, 15 June 1809 - History

Timeline Description
American Revolution &mdash Major Events

Main events from 1775 to 1783:
From the Battle at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, to the signing of the final peace treaty at Paris on September 13, 1783.

Lexington & Concord, April 19, 1775
Washington named Commander in Chief of Continental Army, June 15, 1775
Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775

Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776
British evacuate Boston, March 17, 1776
Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776
Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776
British occupation of N.Y. City, September 15, 1776
Battle of Trenton, December 26, 1776

Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777
Indecisive action at Oriskany, August 6, 1777
Battle of Bennington, August 16, 1777
Battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777
British occupy Philadelphia, September 26, 1777
Battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777
Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, October 17, 1777
Washington retires to Valley Forge, December 19, 1777

U.S. & France sign alliance, February 6, 1778
Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778
(First) Battle of Savannah, December 29, 1778

Spain declares war on Britain, June 21, 1779
Battle of Vincennes, February 25, 1779
Bonhomme Richard captures British Serapis, September 23, 1779

British take Charleston, May 12, 1780
Battle of Camden, August 16, 1780
Battle of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780

Battle of Cowpens, January 17, 1781
Battle of Guilford Courthouse, March 15, 1781
French Defeat British on Chesapeake Bay, September 5, 1781
Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown, October 19, 1781

U.S. & Britain sign preliminary peace treaty, November 30, 1782

Final peace treaty signed in Paris, September 13, 1783 (Part of the 1783 Peace of Paris )

In an attempt to add Canada to the rebellion as a 14th state, the Continental Congress authorized a two pronged invasion of the British province.
Under command of Montgomery, American forces seized Montreal in 1775 but were forced to fall back in retreat after an unsuccessful attack on Quebec in 1776.

The Wilderness:
The Americans launched two significant offensives here. A ragged and freezing group of soldiers under the command of Clark seized the British outpost
at Vincennes in 1779 and helped to support American postwar claims to the Ohio River Valley. Washington launched a second military expedition under the command of
Sullivan in the summer of 1779 against Britain's chief allies in New York, the Iroquois Indians.

New York:
Believing that the rebellion was strongest in New England, the British attempted a three pronged assault on the Hudson River Valley with the intent of
separating and isolating New England from her sister colonies in the south. American victories at Saratoga and Oriskany blunted these drives and defeated this strategy.
The American victory at Saratoga had the added effect of bringing the French into the war on the American side.

The Carolinas:
Stalemated in the North, the British shifted their attention to the South where they anticipated significant Loyalist support for their cause. After defeating
American forces at Charlestown and Camden in 1780. British forces were repulsed at Kings Mountain and Cowpens in 1780 and 1781. Following a drawn battle at Guilford
Courthouse in 1781, Cornwallis shifted his operations to Virginia while his opponent, Greene, began the process of reducing those British outposts still remaining to the South.

Pennsylvania / New Jersey:
Driven from Long Island early in the war, Washington moved the area of conflict south of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Key victories at Trenton
and Princeton kept American hopes alive in late 1776 and early 1777. Washington's major accomplishment in this theater was his ability to consistently pressure the British
while avoiding a pitched battle that could have threatened the existence of his army.

Cornwallis' decision to move his forces into Yorktown in order to link-up with the British fleet ultimately proved his undoing. After a successful feint towards New York,
Washington shifted his army to the south and laid siege to the British at Yorktown. With the French fleet closing the lone remaining escape route, a joint American/French
force under Washington forced the surrender of Cornwallis and his army in the fall of 1781.

Courtesy of the United States Military Academy Department of History.

Who is Sharpe?

Richard Sharpe is the fictional protagonist of a series of 21 novels and three short stories chronicling his career as a soldier in the British Army. Written by Bernard Cornwell, the series follows Sharpe's adventures throughout his twenty-two year career originally only 11 books covering the Peninsula War, the author has since added another ten volumes to cover highlights of Sharpe's career from his time as a private to career's end at Waterloo and beyond.

Cornwell begins the timeline with Sharpe's Tiger when Sharpe is Private in the 33rd Regiment of foot in India. He is promoted to Sergeant by the end of the book. He was promoted to Ensign in the 74th Regiment by the end of his time in India, and transferred to the newly formed 95th Rifles as a Second Lieutenant during Sharpe's Trafalgar. Circumstances and ambition allow him a prominent roll in the fighting in Spain and Portugal, and he is promoted through the ranks with every feat and victory, finally promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in Sharpe's Waterloo.

Prussian Army in the Napoleonic Wars

After the embarrassing defeat it has faced against the French in the Revolutionary Wars, Kingdom of Prussia signed a peace treaty in 1795 and left the coalition. King Frederick William II died 1797 and he was succeeded by his son Frederick William III. Coming into the 19 th century, the Prussian state was almost broke and the military institutions, on which all the state’s treasures were spent, had proved extremely incompetent. While Prussia was trying to recover and reorganize, Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself the Emperor of France and started expanding his territory in mainland Europe. Prussia remained neutral as it was still nowhere strong enough to wage another war. Towards the end of 1805, Prussia signed the Treaty of Potsdam with Russia on 3 November and declared that it would join the coalition if Napoleon doesn’t commit to a peace deal. However, Napoleon’s victory at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December dismantled the Third Coalition and nullified the treaty between Prussia and Russia. With no other choice, Prussia approached to Napoleon and signed a friendly treaty with him on 15 December. In this treaty, Prussia renounced south Germany but acquired Hanover.

In the following months, however, Prussian diplomacy changed drastically, as the French expansion on German soil sparked anti-Napoleon sentiments to rapidly grow. Even though Frederick III himself was a pacifist, his wife Queen Louise and other pro-war army generals managed to persuade him to turn against Napoleon. In the second half of 1806, Prussia made the decision to form a coalition against France. The only allies they could find were Saxony and Russia. Saxony was a neighbor of Prussia but it couldn’t provide many soldiers. Russia was still strong despite the defeats it had experienced, but it would take so long for Russians to mobilize and bring an army from all that distance. And Napoleon’s Grande Armee was already positioned at the heart of Germany and near Prussian border. Nevertheless, Prussia declared war at the French Empire and started the War of the Fourth Coalition.

On 9 and 10 October, the French army defeated the Prussian and Saxon armies at two different locations but the most decisive blow came on 14 October at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Actually, Jena and Auerstedt were different battles that took place at the same time on very close fields. In both battles, Prussia lost one-third of its soldiers. But the worst thing wasn’t the number of casualties, it was the total collapse of the Prussian army. After the defeat, the organization of the army and the communication between separate Prussian garrisons and generals completely collapsed. Many troops were cut off and forced to surrender. King Frederick William III and his wife Queen Louise fled from Berlin and went to eastern Prussia. Napoleon went on and entered Berlin with his army on 27 October. Remnants of the Prussian army left Brandenburg and moved to Königsberg to consolidate with the Russians.

In the subsequent months, Russian forces couldn’t manage to stop Napoleon and relieve the occupied Prussian territories. Napoleon’s forces occupied Prussia for almost a year until finally the three sides signed a peace treaty at Tilsit in 7 July 1807. According to the treaty Prussia lost almost half of its territories, was forced to pay tremendous amounts of money and its army was limited to 42.000 men.

The disastrous defeats of the Fourth Coalition proved that the victorious and superior Prussian army of Frederick the Great was no longer present. And since the army consisted the very core of the Prussian state, an urgent need for a large scale reform was suddenly required. The reformation of the state and the society was mainly carried out by Baron vom Stein and Karl August von Hardenberg whereas the military reforms came out from Gerhard von Scharnhorst and Hermann von Boyen. Famous Carl von Clausewitz was also one of the prominent reformers. One of the most important part of the social reforms was the abolition of serfdom in 1807. Restrictions on the lower classes were lifted in order to create a more patriotic and united Prussian nation and society. As for the military reforms, a War Ministry was created in 1809 and Prussian War Academy was founded in 1810. In order to not be overwhelmed with the army restriction from the Treaty of Tilsit, a new recruitment policy was created. Instead of long-term military service for recruits, reserves would be replaced with new recruits regularly and this way more and more men would be fit and trained for duty at the time of war. Some outdated and traditional punishments were abolished within the army to reduce the number of deserters. The army reform greatly slowed down after Scharnhorst’s death in 1813 yet they still showed their effectiveness in the future.

War of the Sixth Coalition

Towards the end of 1812, Napoleon and his Grande Armee were miserably fleeing the Russian soil after an unsuccessful invasion attempt. At that time, Prussia was still bound to the peace treaty signed with Napoleon years before. However, the Prussian King, Generals and statesmen saw Napoleon’s defeat as a great opportunity to strike. The people were now much more pro-war compared to the conditions of 1806. Prussia immediately signed the Convention of Tauroggen with Russia and ended its participation in the invasion. The news of the Grande Armee’s shattering caused the Prussians to mobilize pretty quickly with great thirst for a liberation war. On 17 March 1813, King Frederick William III issued a proclamation called “An Mein Volk”, in which he encouraged his people to fight against Napoleon’s tyranny. By time, the coalition began to expand as Great Britain and Austria take up arms against France as well.

Despite French Army’s exhaustion and the enthusiasm for war on Prussia’s side, the wars to throw the French out of German soil were by no means easy to wage. Napoleon often managed to stop all three armies of Prussia, Russia and Austria at the same time. But still, the numbers were too big for the French to deal with so they were eventually pushed back. The biggest blow to Napoleon came at the Battle of Leipzig. He lost half of his army in a disaster and lost control of all his territories on the east of the Rhine. The coalition armies reached Paris in March 1814 and captured the city before the end of the month. Napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne and was exiled to Elba.

War of the Seventh Coalition

After nine months in exile, Napoleon managed to escape the island and reached the coast of France on 1 March. He quickly gathered enough support and marched to Paris. He rose to power again without any internal opposition. This caused all the coalition members (Great Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria) to declare him an outlaw and declare war against him. Napoleon hastily mobilized his armies and marched them to Brussels where he hoped to confront the British Army under Wellington’s command. There was another coalition army near Brussels, Blücher’s Prussian Army. On 16 June 1815, Napoleon defeated Blücher’s forces at the Battle of Ligny but he couldn’t dismantle his enemy. He separated a third of his army and ordered them to prevent the Prussians from rejoining with the British. He then went on to Waterloo to face with Wellington’s forces. The two armies confronted on 18 June 1815. Napoleon’s last invasion attempt was stopped by Wellington’s decisiveness in holding his ground and Blücher’s timely flank attack. Napoleon’s Grande Armee was decisively crushed. Napoleon abdicated the throne for the last time on 22 June and this time was exiled to an island at the middle of the ocean, Saint Helena.

SYMON SYMONSE, the first settler, came early to New Netherland in the service of the West India Company, as boatswain of the ship Prince Maurice. In 1645 he bought a house and lot of Jacob Roy, in New Amsterdam. Soon after he came to Beverwyck, where he purchased or built a house, which in 1654 he offered for sale. He had lately withdrawn from the service of the West India Company, against whom he then held a claim for services of 834 guilders. In 1662, being about to remove to the Esopus, he empowered Johannes Withart to sell his house and lot but it is evident that he changed his purpose, for in 1663 he hired a bouwery of 25 or 30 morgens, of Gerrit Bancker and Harmen Vedderen, at Schenectady, and still retained possession of his house in Albany as late as 1667. His house and lot in Schenectady, was on the north side of Union Street, 100 Amsterdam feet westerly from Church Street, running through to Front Street, and remained in the family more than a hundred years. He m. Rebecca, dau. of Philip Du Trieux (Truax), court messenger of New Amsterdam, and had the following children: Symon Abraham Philip Dirk Cornelis Claas Susanna, who m. Isaac Cornelise Swits Maria, who m. Daniel Janse Van Antwerpen Rebecca, who m. Claas Cornelise Vander Volgen Sara, who m. Arent Vedder. On the sad night of the 8th of Feb., 1690, his five sons, Symon, Abraham, Philip, Dirk and Claas were taken captive by the French and Indians, and carried to Canada the following year they were redeemed.

SYMON JR., eldest son of the first settler, owned a lot on the north side of State Street, from Jan Baptist Van Eps's lane (now Jay Street) to a point 250 feet eastwardly from the " Lange gang " (now (Centre Street). His dau., Susanna Bragham, inherited one-third of this lot. He m. Geertruy, dau. of Jan Rinkhout of Albany, and had the following children: Rebecca, bp. in Albany, July 3, 1692, m. Nicolaas Van Petten Eve, bp. in Schenectady, Jan. 3, 1695 Susanna, bp. in Albany, March 21, 1697, m. Joseph Bragham Simon, bp. in Schenectady, Sept. 29, 1700 Johannes, bp. in Schenectady, Dec. 13, 1702 Nicolaas Lysbeth, bp. in Albany, Feb. 24 1706, m. Juriaan Siverse Cornelis.

ABRAHAM, son of the first settler, m. first, Antje Wemp, widow of Sander Glen, April 15, 1696 and secondly, Hestertje Visscher, dau. of Harmen Visscher, of Albany, July 9, 1699, by whom he had the following children, all bp. in Schenectady, except Harmanus and Cornelis (he was not living in 1737) Rebecca, bp. May 5, 1700, m. Abraham De Graaf Hester, bp. April 7, 1701, m. Frans Van de Bogart Maria, bp. Jan. 24, 1703, m. Jacob Vrooman Geertruy, bp. April 30, 1704, m. David Marinus Simon, bp. Oct. 28, 1705 Harmanus, bp. July 13, 1707 Cornelis, bp. Oct. 23, 1709 Abraham, bp. Oct. 21, 1711.

PHILIP, son of the first settler, settled on the north side of the Mohawk at Crane's village. He was drowned in the river in 1716. His lands were inherited by his three sons. He m. Sara, dau. of Jacobus Peek, and had the following children: Simon, b. Sept. 5, 1702, d. Nov. 10 (15), 1732 Jacobus, b. Sept. 18, 1707, d. Feb. 18, 1731/2 Rebecca, b. June 25, 1710, d. Feb. 13, 1731/2 Ludovicus, (Lewis), b. Nov. 28, 1712 Elisabeth, b. Sept. 16, 1715, m. Frederic Van Patten.

DIRK, son of the first settler,* m. Lysbeth, dau. of Claas Lourense Vander Volgen, and had the following children all bp. in the Schenectady church, save the second and fourth: Simon, Oct. 16, 1707 Nicolaas, Oct. 23, 1709 Rebecca, Feb. 13, 1712, m. Isaac Quackenboss Symon, May 2, 1714 Philippus, May 10, 1716 Cornelis, June 2, 1718 Maria, June 18, 1720 Abraham, Jan. 26, 1722/3 Isaac, b. Jan. 28, 1725 Neeltje, b. May 6, 1726, m. Pieter Van Vranken.
* Supposed to have settled in Niskayuna.

SIMON, son of Dirk, m. first, Maria Truex, Nov. 5, 1732, and had a dau. Rebecca, who was bp. April 8, 1733. She m. Benjamin Smit, and afterwards Volkert Vedder. Simon Groot, m. secondly, Bata Clute, and had the following children bp. in Schenectady, save the first who was bp. in Albany Elisabeth, Feb. 20, 1739, m. Gerardus Clute Dirk, May 17, 1741 Jacob, Oct. 30, 1743 Geertruy, April 6, 1746 Geertruy, Oct. 11, 1747 Rebecca, Dec. 8, 1751, m. Dirk Hagadorn Isaac, Sept. 3, 1754 Isaac, Nov. 13, 1757 Abraham, July 6, 1766.

NICOLAAS, son of Dirk, was member of the assembly from Albany County in 1761. He m. Maritje Tymessen, dau. of Eldert Tymessen of Connestagioene, Dec. 16, 1732, and had the following children bp. in the Schenectady church Elisabeth, June 10, 1733, m. first, Arent Van Antwerpen, and secondly, Jan Baptist Wendell Rebecca, m. Robert Smit Eldert, Dec. 21 (?), 1737 Hester, Dec. 28, 1740, m. Joseph Consaulus Dirk, May 24, 1747.

ABRAHAM, son of Abraham, m. Willempie, dau. of John Dunbar, Nov. 29, 1736, and had the following children bp. in Schenectady: Jan, April 9, 1738 Hester, Aug. 23, 1741 Hester, Dec. 12, 1742, m. Cornelis Mebie Tannetje, Feb. 17, 1745, m. Johannes L. Peek Rebecca, Oct. 6, 1748, m. Volkert Veeder Maria, April 21, 1751, m. Johannes Hall (?) Catarina, April 28, 1753 Simon, Oct. 31, 1756 Willempje, April 9, 1759, m. Johannes Erichzon Abraham, Aug 6, 1763.

NICOLAAS, son of Simon, m. Agnietje …… He d. in 1741. Ch: Elias (?) Simon, bp. Oct. 14, 1738 Nicolaas, bp. May 24, 1741.

LEWIS (LODOVICUS), son of Philip, lived at Crane's village was taken captive by the French and Indians and carried to Canada d. Jan. 27, 1794, a. 81ys. He m. first, Annatie, dau. of Pieter Van Antwerpen, Dec. 6, 1738, who d. June 30, 1750 he m. secondly, Elizabeth, dau. of Johannes Van Eps, Jan. 14, (21), 1760, She d. Aug. 22, 1794. Ch. by the first wife: Philip, b, Oct. 18, 1739, d. Nov. 17, 1769 Engeltie, b. May 27, 1741, d. May 2, 1759 Petrus, b. March 7, 1744 Simon, b. Dec. 20 (?), bp. Dec. 17 (?), 1749. Ch. by second wife: Annatie, b. Sept. 2, 1761, m. Johannes N. De Graaf Johannes, b. June 6, 1763, d. near Crane's village, Jan. 20, 1845 Jacobus, bp. March 1, 1767.

CORNELIS, son of Simon, Jr., m. Elisabeth, dau. of Cornelis Pootman (now Putman), Sept. 7, 1739, in Albany. Ch: Abraham Jacomyntje, bp. March 20, 1743, m. Jesse Van Slyck Simon, bp. Nov. 17, 1745 Hester, bp. Nov. 24, 1751, m. Harman Campbell Eva, bp. Sept. 3, 1754 Cornelis, bp. Jan. 23, 1757.

PHILIP, son of Dirk, m. Elisabeth, dau. of Andries De Graaf of the Woestyne , June 20, 1747. Ch: Dirk, bp. May 22, 1748 Andries De Graaf, bp. Oct. 15, 1749 Nicolaas, bp. Sept. 22, 1751 Neeltje, bp. Sept. 3, 1754, m. Petrus Groot Nicolaas, bp. June 19, 1757 Elisabeth, bp. March 15, 1761 Nicolaas, bp. Dec. 1, 1765 Rebecca, bp. Aug. 27, 1768.

ABRAHAM, son of Dirk, of Niskayuna, m. Rachel, dau. of Jesse De Graaf of Schenectady, April 4, 1752. Ch: Dirk, bp. April 29, 1753, d. March 15, 1811 Jesse, bp. April 20, 1755 Cornelis, bp. Nov. 5, 1758 Elisabeth, bp. Sept. 21, 1766.

CORNELIS, son of Dirk, m. Maria, dau. of Evert Van Vranken, Nov. 24, 1752, in Albany. Ch: Dirk, bp. in Albany, Sept. 29, 1753 Maritie, bp. in Schenectady, March 16, 1755, m. Jacobus Van Vranken Elisabeth, bp. in Albany, Jan. 9, 1757, m. Johannes I. Quackenbos Dirk, bp. in Albany, Dec. 31, 1758 Evert, bp. in Schenectady, Feb. 7, 1762 Rebecca, b. Feb. 11, 1771.

ELIAS, son of Nicolaas (?), m. Geertruy Hagadorn, Feb. 20, 1762. Ch: Nicolaas, bp. Dec. 12, 1762, d. Jan. 27, 1813 Hendrick, bp. Nov. 18, 1764 Elisabeth, bp. Dec. 21, 1766, m. Jonathan A. Stevens Harmanus, bp. Jan. 27, 1770 Isaac, bp. Nov. 28, 1773.

ABRAHAM, son of Cornelis, m. first, Catarina Kittel, Sept. 25, 1762 and secondly, Elsje, dau. of Daniel McKinney. He made his will Aug. 27, 1803, proved July 25, 1818. Ch. by first wife: Harmen, bp. July 3, 1763 Eva, bp. Dec. 16, 1764, m. Hendrick Van Dyck Elisabeth, bp. May 15, 1768 Annatje, bp. Sept. 13, 1772, m. Henry Corl, Jr. Jacomyntje, bp. Dec. 25, 1774, m. Valentine Rynex. Ch. by second wife: Cornelis, bp. April 1, 1781 Sara, bp. Oct. 12, 1784 John Beekman, b. June 3, 1792, d. April 25, 1828.

JACOB, son of Simon (?), of Watervliet, m. Maria, dau. of Abraham Van Vranken. He made his will Oct. 8, 1809, proved June 17, 1814, in which he spoke of his wife Maria, and Claas, Abraham, and dau. Getty, wife of Amos Babcock. Ch: Simon, bp. May 18, 1766 Geertruy, bp. June 5, 1768 Abraham, bp. Sept. 11, 1771 Isaac and Jacob, bp. October 27, 1776 Isaac, bp. May 15, 1778 Bata, bp. Jan. 14, 1781.

JACOB, perhaps the same as the last, and Maria Clute, both of Niskayuna, m. Nov. 29, 1765.

SIMON C. JR., son of Cornelis, m. Annatie, dau. of Isaac Abrahamse Truax, Sept. 3, 1769. He d. in West Glenville, Feb. 10, 1832, a. 86ys. she d. April 10, 1834, a. 83ys. Ch: Elisabeth, b. Dec. 4, 1771, m. Isaac J. Vrooman, and d. in Glenville, June 13, 1843 Engeltie, b. May 15, 1774, m. Cornelis Clute Eva, b. Oct. 16, 1777, m. Adam J. Vrooman Isaac, b. Jan. 2, 1780, lived and d. in Glenville Cornelis, b. Aug. 31, 1783, merchant of Schenectady Sarah, b. July 12, 1786 Jacomyntje, b. Dec. 2, 1788, m. John Dawson of Glenville Abram, b. Sept, 17, 1794.

PETRUS, son of Lewis (Lodovicus), m. Neeltje, dau. of Philip Groot. Ch: Annatje, bp. Oct. 17, 1773, m. Benjamin Van Olinda Philippus, bp. July 29, 1776. The following advertisement was published by the late Judge Sanders, Sen., in the Albany Gazette :

"On Thursday, the 4th instant, about four miles from the city of Schenectady, aside the Mohawk turnpike, sitting under a tree, I discovered Petrus Groot, who was supposed to have been slain in the Oriskena battle under General Herkimer on the 6th of August, in the year 1777. I immediately recognized him, and on conversation with him, he confessed himself to be the person I took him to be. I then carried him to the nearest tavern,* where I left him to be sent to his children and brothers, from whence, however, he departed before day the next morning, and was seen in Albany on Friday. His mental faculties are much impaired, supposed to have, been occasioned by a wound of a tomahawk near the fore part of his head, though he is at most times tolerably rational. His head is bald the circle or scar of the scalping knife is plainly to be seen on it, and a stab on the side of his neck near his shoulder has a small scar near his ancle is a middle sized man, has blue eyes, a long countenance, and stoops much in the shoulders. He speaks English, French, Dutch and Indian, and says he has been last a prisoner among the Indians north of Quebec had on an old dark grey coat and old brownish pantaloons has a large pack with him. He refused to go home, as one of his former neighbors whom he saw, would not recognize him, he was fearful his children and brothers would not. He said he would go to the governor's. Being at times deranged, it is feared he will stray too far away for his friends to find him. He is of a very respectable family and connexions. Any person who will take him up and bring him to the subscriber, at Schenectady, shall be well compensated for his care and trouble, and will receive the sincere thanks of his children and relatives, and be the means of relieving this poor unfortunate man from distress by restoring him to his family and friends.
N. B. The printers in this and the neighboring states are requested to give the above a few insertions in their respective papers, to aid in restoring a poor sufferer to his children and friends, who has been thirty years a prisoner among the Indians. He is now 63 years of age. He was a lieutenant in the militia at the time he was supposed to have been slain."

* The house to which be was taken, was occupied by Simon Van Patten, better known as Cider Simon, from the circumstance of his manufacturing large quantities of cider annually, van Patten identified him by a mark on his leg, occasioned by the bite of a rattlesnake, which he remembered from the circumstance of its having been cured by an Indian applying a leaf through which he sucked the poison with his mouth, leaving it perfectly free from soreness.

ELDERT, son of Nicolaas, m. Alida Gerritse. Ch: Hester, bp. in Schenectady, Dec. 25, 1774 Nicolaas, bp. in Schenectady, Sept. 21, 1777 Hendrick, bp. in Albany, April 26, 1780 Hendrick, bp. in Schenectady, Dec. 28, 1784.

DIRK, son of Philip, m. Ariaantje Wemple, Dec. 10, 1773. Cb: Elisabeth, bp. April 23, 1775, m. Jacobus Van Sice Barent, bp. Dec. 19, 1779 Neeltje, bp. Feb. 3, 1782.

SIMON, son of Lewis, m. Annatje, dau. of Jeremiah Swart. Ch: Philippus, bp. May 4, 1775 Jeremiah, bp. Jan. 4, 1778 Annatje, bp. July 22, 1781 Louis, bp. Dec. 28, 1783 Maria, b. Jan. 24, 1786 Elisabeth, b. Nov. 3, 1788 Lewis, b. April 15, 1794.

JOHN L., son of Louis, of Crane's village, m. Sarah, dau. of Jeremiah John Miller, June 26, 1791. She d. Jan. 30, 1812, a. 42ya., and 6d. Ch: Lewis, b. May 8, 1793 [1792 (?)] Elisabeth, b. March 3, 1794, d. March 21, 1795 Sarah, b. Feb. 26, 1795 Elisabeth, b. April 21, 1796 Maria, b. Sept. 10, 1798 Anna, b. March 30, 1802, m. Walter Conkling, d. May 12, 1841 Elisabeth, b. May 1, 1808 Jeremiah, b. June 8, 1815.

JOHN, son of Abraham, m. Engeltie, dau. of Philip Van Petten, June 12, 1762. Ch: Abraham, bp. Dec. 18, 1763 Philip, bp. August 24, 1766 John, bp. Jan. 15, 1768 Magdalena, bp. May 5, 1771 Willempie, bp. June 13, 1773 Geesje, bp. July 3, 1775 Hester, bp. March 1, 1778 Arent, bp. May 21, 1780 Simon, bp. Sept. 15, 1782.

DIRK, son of Nicolaas, m. Maria, dau. of Reuben Hosford, Dec. 7, 1774. Ch: Nicolaas, bp. Oct. 3, 1775 Ariaantje, bp. July 19, 1778 Maria, bp. Feb. 11, 1781, m …… Duncan, and d. Oct. 13, 1852 Neeltje, bp. June 6, 1784 Reuben, b. May 4, 1787 John Hosford, b. April 13, 1790 Cornelius, b. May 13, 1796.

CORNELIS C., son of Cornelis, m. Maria Bastiaanse. Ch: Elisabeth, bp. Aug. 24, 1782 Johannes Bastiaanse, b. Jan. 12, 1786 Eva, b. March 8, 1789 Catharina, b. June 6, 1792 Cornelius, b. Feb. 4, 1796 Abram, b. Nov. 20, 1798 Henrikus, b. Feb. 23, 1802 Maria, b. May 2, 1805.

HENDRIK E., son of Elias, m. Sophia Chase. Ch: Geertruy, b. Feb. 1785, bp. Feb. 2, 1786 Mille, b. Nov. 28, 1788 Antje, b. July 19, 1791 Elisabeth, b. July 4, 1793 Elisabeth, b. Aug. 4, 1795.

SIMON, son of Abraham, m. Rebecca, dau. of Arent Vedder, Sept. 17, 1785. He d. March 4, 1838, a. 81ys., 3m., and 20d. she d. March 25, 1845, a. 78ys. Ch: Abraham, b. Jan. 31, 1786 Catharina, b. Jan. 7, 1789 Willempie, b. Oct. 20, 1791, m. Harmanus Swart of Woestyne , and d. April 17, 1840 Maria, b. March 1, 1794 Johannes, b. Sept. 15, 1796 Arent, b. Nov. 18, 1799 Esther, b. Sept. 9, 1802 Simon, b. April 12, 1808.

HARMANUS, son of Elias, m. Lois Pitcher. Ch: Geertruyd, b. March 19, 1797.

JEREMIAH, son of John, of Crane's village, m. Sally Swart. Ch: John, b. Aug., 1813.

DIRK, son of Cornelis, m. Jacomyntje, dau. of Bastiaan Tymessen, all of Niskayuna, Dec. 1797. He d. June 26, 1847, in his 89th year she d. July 29, 1826, in her 67th year. Ch: Cornelis, d. Jan. 31, 1838, in his 38th year.

ANDRIES DE GRAAF, son of Philip, m. Maritie Hagedorn, June 3, 1787. Ch: Philip, b. July 29, 1789.

ANDRIES, perhaps same as the last, m. Maria Murray. Ch: Elisabeth, b. June 15, 1792.

JESSE, m. Geertruy, dau. of Johannes Van Vranken. Ch: Johannes, bp. June 1, 1783 Marytje, b. Feb. 2, 1786 Elisabeth, b. Jan. 15, 1789.

JOHN J., and Elsje Van Bunschoten, both of the Hellenbergh, m. Dec. 25, 1793.

ABRAHAM, and Esther J. Toll, m. Sept. 14, 1787.

DIRK, and Eve Vrooman. Ch: Rachel, b. Nov. 23, 1804. He made his will Nov. 9, 1811, proved Nov. 29, 1811, spoke of dau. Rachel, brother's dau. Alida, brother Cornelius S.

JOHN L., m. Margaret Van Kegen (?), Feb. 28, 1814. Ch. b: Margaret, April 30, 1815 Catrina, Mar. 12, 1817 Jane Ann, Feb. 28, 1819 Lewis, Aug. 16, 1821 Eastean, (dau.), March 24, 1826.

ISAAC, and Nancy Chase. Ch: Geertruy, b. Jan. 15, 1798.

ISAAC, and Melicent (Malissa) Collins. Ch. b: Sally, Aug, 1, 1805 Cornelius, March 26, 1809.

JEREMY, and Elisabeth Van Wormer. Ch: Annatie, b. Oct. 28, 1797.

WILLEM, m. Catharina Flagg, June 12, 1791. Ch: John, b. Oct. 5, 1791.

Watch the video: (July 2022).


  1. Matlal

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  2. Tonos

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  3. Linddun

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