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March 25, 2014 Day 65 of the Sixth Year - History

March 25, 2014 Day 65 of the Sixth Year - History


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9:15AM THE PRESIDENT meets with President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan

U.S. Ambassador's residence, The Netherlands


9:55AM THE PRESIDENT arrives the World Forum at The Hague to participate in the Nuclear Security Summit

The World Forum, The Hague


10:00AM THE PRESIDENT attends the leaders-only plenary session

The World Forum, The Hague


12:15PM THE PRESIDENT joins Nuclear Summit leaders for a family photo

The World Forum, The Hague


1:00PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a working lunch with plenary discussion

The World Forum, The Hague


2:30PM THE PRESIDENT attends the third plenary discussion

The World Forum, The Hague


3:15PM THE PRESIDENT attends the closing session

The World Forum, The Hague


4:00PM THE PRESIDENT holds a joint press conference with Prime Minister Rutte

Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Netherlands


5:00PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, Mohammed Bin Zayed Al Nahyan of the United Arab Emirates

U.S. Ambassador's residence, The Netherlands


6:30PM THE PRESIDENT holds a trilateral meeting with President Park Geun-Hye of the Republic of Korea and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan

U.S. Ambassador's residence, The Netherlands


7:40PM THE PRESIDENT meets and greets with Embassy personnel

U.S. Ambassador's residence, The Netherlands


8:35PM THE PRESIDENT departs The Netherlands en route Brussels, Belgium

Schiphol International Airport


9:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Brussels, Belgium

Brussels International Airport


Historical Events on November 25

Victory in Battle

1177 Battle of Montgisard: Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeats Saladin and a larger Ayyubid force

    Pope Lucius III (Ubaldo Allucingoli) reigned 1181-85, dies and is replaced by Umberto Crivelli (Pope Urban III) Giovanni Gaetano Orsini elected as Pope Nicolas III Charles IV issues letter of protection of Jews of Strasbourg Alsace The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins

Victory in Battle

1500 Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captures Christopher Columbus

    Jacob Cornelius van Neck's merchant fleet reaches Bantam, West-Java on second Dutch expedition to Indonesia Michiel de Ruyter conquers Danish city Nyborg A deadly earthquake rocks Shemakha, in the Caucasus, killing 80,000 people. First English patent granted to an American, for processing corn

Coup d'état

1741 Elizabeth of Russia seizes power in a coup with the aid of Imperial Russian guards in Saint Petersburg, Russia

    Austrian forces pillage & kill Jews of Prague King Ferdinand IV of Spain granted the Beaterio dela Compania de Jesus or now known as the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary(RVM) a royal protection. Britain captures Fort Duquesne (later Fort Pitt/Pittsburgh) from French

Historic Publication

1792 Benjamin Banneker first publishes his Farmer's Almanac

    First sword swallower in US performs (NYC) The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy Delmonico's, one of NY's finest restaurants, provides a meal of soup, steak, coffee & half a pie for 12 cents Cyclone slams south eastern India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroying city of Coringa. Storm waves sweep inland, destroying 20,000 ships and killing an estimated 300,000 people. 35 survivors of the mutiny on the slave ship Amistad return to Africa Opera "Marta" is produced (Vienna) Battle of Missionary Ridge, Tennessee Confederate plot to burn New York city fails Confederate retreat at Sandersville, Georgia

Event of Interest

1867 US Congress commission looks into "impeachment" of President Andrew Johnson

    The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873. Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River. John B Meyenberg of St Louis patents evaporated milk Greenback (Independent) Party organizes in Indianapolis Spain grants Puerto Rico autonomy Battle at Graspan, Cape colony: General Methuen beats Farmers Franz Lehar's opera "Wiener Frauen" premieres in Vienna

Music Concert

1907 Jules Massenet's opera "Thaïs" has its first American performance in New York

    Dorando Pietri (It) beats Johnny Hayes (US) in Madison Square Garden marathon by 60 yds CFL Grey Cup, Varsity Stadium, Toronto: UT Blues win 3rd straight title beat Toronto Argonauts, 14-7 Australasian Championships Men's Tennis, Melbourne: 1907 Wimbledon champion Norman Brookes of Australia beats countryman Horace Rice 6-1, 6-2, 6-3 American College of Surgeons incorporates in Springield, Illinois Socialist International rejects that world war is coming The Irish Volunteers founded in Dublin to "secure the rights and liberties common to all the people of Ireland" 1st Thanksgiving Parade (Philadelphia) WTAW of College Station, Tx, broadcast 1st football play-by-play

Event of Interest

1922 Crown Prince Hirohito of Japan becomes Regent of Japan in his ailing father's stead

    KPD proposes German Parliament expropriate possession of monarchy Ito, Japan records 690 earthquake shocks in 1 day

Event of Interest

1930 Sporting News picks Bill Terry as NL MVP & Joe Cronin as AL MVP

    1st Soviet liquid fuel rocket attains altitude of 261' (80m) International Institute for Social History (IISG) forms in Amsterdam Germany & Japan sign anti-Komintern pact World's Fair of Paris closes (31.2 million visitors)

Execution

1938 Lavrentiy Beria succeeds Nikolai Yezhov as the head of the Soviet secret police, NKVD, after Yezhov was executed on Joseph Stalin's orders

    Nazi Intelligence agency Sicherheitsdienst (SD) arrests Dutch resistance fighter Bernard Ijzerdraat, founder of De Geuzen

Event of Interest

    "Tickets, Please" closes at Coronet Theater NYC after 245 performances CFL Grey Cup, Varsity Stadium, Toronto: Toronto Argonauts claim 9th title shutout Winnipeg Blue Bombers, 13-0 UN gives Eritrea to Ethiopia

Event of Interest

1955 Clement Attlee resigns as leader of the UK Labour Party

Event of Interest

1957 US President Dwight Eisenhower suffers a mild stroke, impairing his speech

    Senegal becomes an autonomous state in French Community "Once Upon a Mattress" opens at Alvin Theater NYC for 460 performances "Amos 'n' Andy" made its last broadcast on CBS radio First atomic reactor for research & development, Richland, Wa CBS ends last 4 radio soap operas (Ma Perkins, Right to Happiness, Young Dr Malone & 2nd Mrs Burton) & cancels 4 other series Three of the four Mirabal sisters, opponents of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, are assassinated

Event of Interest

1961 NBA's Bob Cousy becomes 2nd player to score 15,000 points

Event of Interest

1963 JFK laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery

    Congo military coup under Gen Mobutu, President Kasavubu overthrown Cincinnati infielder Tommy Helms is voted NL Rookie of Year Pirate Radio Station 390 (Radio Invicta) closes down (reopen 12/31) "Apple Tree" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 463 performances Puerto Rico placed on Atlantic Standard Time 15th National Film Awards (India): "Hatey Bazarey" wins the Golden Lotus

Event of Interest

1969 John Lennon returns OBE to protest against UK's support for Vietnam War

    KC outfielder Lou Piniella is voted AL Rookie of Year New York Yankees catcher Thurman Munson wins AL Rookie of Year In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and two compatriots commit ritualistic suicide after an unsuccessful coup attempt 37th Heisman Trophy Award: Pat Sullivan, Auburn (QB)

Event of Interest

1971 British Labour Party leader Harold Wilson proposes Britain should work towards a withdrawal from Northern Ireland, and after 15 years the Republic of Ireland could rejoin the British Commonwealth

    "Ambassador" closes at Lunt-Fontanne Theater NYC after 9 performances 3 Palestinians hijack KLM B747 above Iraq, to Dubai CFL Grey Cup, CNE Stadium, Vancouver: Ottawa Rough Riders 8th Championship defeat Edmonton Eskimos, 22-18 Bloodless military coup ousts Greek President George Papadopoulos US cuts maximum speed limit cut to 55 MPH as an energy conservation measure

Event of Interest

1976 O.J. Simpson gains 273 yards for Buffalo vs Detroit

    The Band's farewell concert at San Francisco's Winterland Ballroom Viking 1 radio signals from Mars help prove the general theory of relativity NYPD officer Robert Torsney shoots unarmed youth Randolph Evans while answering response at youth's Brooklyn home David Steed balanced stationary on a bike for 9 hrs 15 mins

Boxing Title Fight

1977 Thomas Hearns KOs Jerome Hill in 2 rounds in his 1st pro fight

Election of Interest

1978 New Zealand general election won by ruling Prime Minister Robert Muldoon and the National Party

    "Most Happy Fella" closes at Majestic Theater NYC after 53 performances CFL Grey Cup, Olympic Stadium, Montreal: Edmonton Eskimos retain Championship defeat Montreal Alouettes, 17-9 Eskimos shut out of MVP and MV Canadian awards Israel returns Alma oilfields in Gulf of Suez to Egypt Pittsburgh gains 606 net yards against Cleveland, winning 33-30

Event of Interest

1979 Pat Summerall and John Madden broadcast a game together for the first time, a pairing that lasts 22 years and becomes one of the most well-known partnerships in TV sportscasting history

Event of Interest

1980 Imran Khan scores his 1st Test Cricket ton, 123 v WI Lahore

Boxing Title Fight

1980 Sugar Ray Leonard regains WBC welterweight boxing crown when Roberto Durán quits in the 8th round of infamous “no mas” fight at the Superdome, New Orleans

    Upper-Volta military coup under Col Saye Zerbo, President Lamizana flees Failed coup by South African mercenaries in Seychelles Rollie Fingers is 1st relief pitcher to win AL MVP

Appointment of Interest

1981 Pope John Paul II names Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger "Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith"

    The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire destroys an entire city block, including the Northwestern National Bank building and the recently closed Donaldson's Department Store.

Boxing Title Fight

1983 Larry Holmes TKOs Marvis Frazier in 1 for heavyweight boxing title

    Soyuz T-9 returns to Earth, 149 days after take-off Syria & Saudi Arabia announce cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli Julio M Sanguinetti wins Uruguay presidential election William Schroeder is second person to receive Jarvik-7 artificial heart Chicago White Sox shortstop Ozzie Guillén is named AL Rookie of Year

Event of Interest

1986 A's Jose Canseco wins AL Rookie of Year

Event of Interest

1986 Iran-Contra affair erupts, President Reagan reveals secret arms deal

Event of Interest

1986 Oliver North's secretary, Fawn Hall, smuggles documents out of his office

    Pakistan cricket leg-spin bowler Abdul Qadir takes 9-56 against England in 1st Test at Lahore best figures by a Pakistani, and by any bowler against England India all out for 75 v West Indies at Delhi, Patterson 5-24 Supertyphoon Nina pummels the Philippines with category 5 winds of 165 mph and a surge that swallows entire villages. at least 1,036 deaths attributed to the storm.

Event of Interest

1988 Chuck Berry pays $250 fine to resolve NYC assault charges

Election of Interest

1990 Lech Wałęsa wins Poland's first popular election

    India bowl the Sri Lankan cricket team out for 82 Venkatapathy Raju (I) takes 6-12 off 17.5 overs Dutch Antilles government of Liberia-Peters falls Failed bomb attack on Egyptian premier Atef Sedki, 1 dead Sony founder Akio Morita announces he will be stepping down as CEO of the company "Patti LuPone on Broadway" closes at Walter Kerr NYC after 46 performances After 24 years, Disneyland Main Street Electrical Parade, ends US telephone technician Richard Bliss arrested for spying in Russia

Album Release

1997 "Sevens" 7th studio album by Garth Brooks is released (Grammy Award Best Country Collaboration with Vocals 1998, Billboard Album of the Year 1998)

    Earthquake in Baku, Azerbaijan 12th Rugby League World Cup: Australia beats New Zealand 40-12 Federation Cup Women's Tennis, Las Vegas, Nevada: Lindsay Davenport beats Conchita Martínez of Spain 6-1, 6-2 to give US an unassailable 3-0 lead (ends, 5-0) and record extending 17th title CFL Grey Cup, Olympic Stadium, Montreal: Calgary Stampeders claim their 5th Championship in team history beat Winnipeg Blue Bombers, 27-19 Polish Minister of National Defence Radek Sikorski opens Warsaw Pact archives to historians showing maps of possible nuclear strikes against Western Europe, including the nuclear annihilation of 43 Polish cities by Soviet-controlled forces. The first European Parliament election and a referendum on changing the voting system (called by the President and declared invalid because of insufficient turnout) were held in Romania.

Music Awards

2012 26th Soul Train Music Awards: Miguel, Beyoncé win

Event of Interest

2012 German Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel finishes 4th in season-ending Brazilian Grand Prix at Autódromo José Carlos Pace to claim his 3rd consecutive F1 World Drivers Championship by 3 points from Fernando Alonso

    17 people are killed and 37 are wounded in a cafe bombing in Baghdad, Iraq Disney release “Frozen: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack” (Grammy Award for Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media 2015, 2014 Billboard Album of the Year) US Defence Secretary Chuck Hagel resigns, ending nearly two years in the Pentagon's top job Switzerland's Bern Art Museum agrees to accept artworks looted from their Jewish owners by the Nazis Protest erupt across US after a decision by Missouri grand jury not to bring charges against a white policeman who shot dead a black teenager Missouri Governor Jay Nixon orders hundreds more US National Guard troops to the town of Ferguson to prevent a second night of rioting and looting

Event of Interest

2014 Lionel Messi becomes the UEFA Champions League all-time top scorer


Historical Events on March 15

    Liu Bei, a Chinese warlord and member of the Han royal house, declares himself Emperor of Shu-Han, claiming legitimate succession to the Han Dynasty
    Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts him in charge of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire. Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, murders King Odoacer of Italy with his sword at a banquet in Ravenna Battle of Riade: German King Henry I beats Magyars Battle of Halmyros: The Catalan Company defeats Walter V of Brienne to take control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in Greece. French attack English south coast, raiding Winchelsea Conservative "Popolo Grasso" regain power in Florence, Italy Anti-Semite monk in Seville, Spain stirs up people to attack Jews

Voyage of Discovery

1493 Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first voyage to the New World

    French Dauphin Francis and his brother Henry exchanged as hostages for their father Francis I, beginning four years of captivity in Spain under Treaty of Madrid Second Diet of Speyer convenes, condemns and attempts to reverse 1526 Diet of Speyers relaxation of ban on Luther's teachings) official protest to attempted reversal on 25 April creates the term "Protestantism" Failed assault on royal palace in Amboise, France General Francois de Guise enters Paris

Event of Interest

1580 Spanish King Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange

Event of Interest

1672 King Charles II enacts Declaration of Indulgence

    Sister St Stanislas Hachard, 1st American nun, takes her vows in New Orleans French King Louis XV declares war on Britain

Event of Interest

1778 Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island discovered by Captain James Cook

Battle of Interest

1781 Battle of Guilford Court House British troops under Cornwallis defeat American forces but their heavy losses led to ceding of territory and a strategic loss

Event of Interest

1783 In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy. The plea is successful and the threatened coup d'etat never takes place.

    1st Russian settlement in California at Russian River Maine admitted as 23rd state of the Union University of Toronto is chartered A revolution breaks out in Hungary. The Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the Reform party. Louisiana establishes 1st health board to regulate quarantine General John Hunt Morgan begins 4 days of raids near Gallatin, Tennessee Red River Campaign-Union forces reach Alexandria, Louisiana Michigan becomes 1st state to tax property to support a university Cincinnati Red Stockings become the 1st professional baseball team 1st US cardinal (John McCloskey) invested Commencement of 1st Test Cricket, Australia v England at the MCG, Melbourne, Australia 1st performance of Caesar Franck's "Lesson Djinns" 1st salaried fish & game warden (William Alden Smith in Michigan) 6 US & German warships sunk by a typhoon in Apia harbour, Samoa, 200 die 1st escalator patented by inventor Jesse W Reno (NYC)

Music Premiere

1908 1st performance of Maurice Ravel's "Rapsodie Espagnole"

Event of Interest

1912 Pitcher Cy Young retires from baseball with 511 wins

Conference of Interest

1913 1st US presidential press conference (Woodrow Wilson)

    Cleveland establishes 1st small claims court Dutch merchant ship Tubantia torpedoed by German submarine & sinks in North Sea General Pershing and 15,000 troops chase Pancho Villa into Mexico University of Ghent taken under Dutch control

Event of Interest

1917 Nicholas II, the last Russian Tsar abdicates and nominates his brother Grand Duke Michael to succeed him [OS Mar 2]

    American Legion forms (Paris) 1st southern radio station begins (WSB, Atlanta Georgia) Sultan Faud crowned King of Egypt, England recognizes Egypt France, which up until now has insisted on currency for all WWI reparation payments from Germany, now accepts raw materials as payment

Event of Interest

Event of Interest

1928 Benito Mussolini modifies Italy electoral system (abolishes right to choose)

    1st seaplane glider flown at Port Washington, NY 1st streamlined submarine of US navy, USS Nautilus, launched NAACP begins coordinated attack on segregation & discrimination US Information Service opens Brilliant batsman George Headley steers West Indies to an innings victory over England in 4th cricket Test at Kingston, Jamaica with a patient, unbeaten 270 First American blood bank in a hospital is opened at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois 1st state contraceptive clinic opens in Raleigh, North Carolina

Hitler Invades Czechoslovakia

1939 Adolf Hitler summons Czech President Emil Hácha to a meeting in Berlin and informs him of the impending attack by Germany Hácha suffers a heart attack and later capitulates

Adolf Hitler meets with Czech President Emil Hácha. After being told of the impending invasion by Germany, Hácha suffered a heart attack at the meeting.

Event of Interest

1939 Reneging on his pledge in the Munich Agreement, Adolf Hitler and Germany occupy and annex Czechoslovakia

Event of Interest

1940 Hermann Goering says 100-200 church bells enough for Germany, smelt the rest

    Blizzard in North Dakota kills 151 people Allied reconnaissance flight over Java Red Army evacuates Kharkov Italian town of Cassino destroyed by Allied bombing

Academy Awards

    Bert Shepard (1 legged WW II vet) tries out as a pitcher for Senators Billboard publishes its 1st album chart (King Cole Trio is #1) Catholic University of Nijmegen reopens Dodgers open spring training at Bear Mountain NY

Agreement of Interest

1946 British Prime Minister Clement Attlee agrees with India's right to independence

Event of Interest

1948 Sir Laurence Olivier on the cover of LIFE magazine

    WCAU TV channel 10 in Philadelphia, PA (CBS) begins broadcasting WICU TV channel 12 in Erie, PA (NBC) begins broadcasting WLWD (now WDTN) TV channel 2 in Dayton, OH (NBC) begins broadcasting

Knighthood

1949 Cricket's master batsman Don Bradman receives his knighthood from the Governor-General of Australia, the Rt Hon. WJ McKell at the investiture in Queen’s Hall, Parliament House, Melbourne

    Gian Carlo Menotti's opera "Consul" opens at Barrymore Theater NYC for 269 performances NYC hires Dr Wallace E Howell as its official "rainmaker" UN forces recapture Seoul, the fourth and final time the city changes hands in the Korean War Persia nationalizes Anglo-Iranian Oil Company "2 in the Aisle" closes at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC after 276 performances Greatest 24-hr rainfall begins: 187 cm at La Reunion, Indian Ocean

Golf Tournament

1953 LPGA Titleholders Championship Women's Golf, Augusta CC: Patty Berg wins her 5th Titleholders title by 9 strokes from Betsy Rawls

Event of Interest

    WSJV TV channel 28 in Elkhart-South Bend, IN (ABC) begins broadcasting Dutch 2nd Chamber requires TV licenses US Air Force unveils self-guided missile WLEX TV channel 18 in Lexington, KY (NBC) begins broadcasting "My Fair Lady" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC for 2,715 performances

Event of Interest

1956 Whipper Billy Watson beats Lou Thesz in Toronto, to become NWA wrestling champion

    "Body Beautiful" musical closes at Broadway Theater NYC after 60 performances KULR TV channel 8 in Billings, MT (NBC/ABC/CBS) begins broadcasting

Event of Interest

1958 Oscar Robertson of Cincinnati Royals scores a NBA midwest region-record 56-point game

    Royals basketball star Maurice Stokes collapses during a playoff game with encephalitis He goes into a coma & is permanently disabled USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test in Ground Zero, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (of 36 total for 1958) England retains the Five Nations Rugby Championship with a 3-3 draw against Scotland at Murrayfield, Edinburgh England’s 16th FN title LPGA Titleholders Championship Women's Golf, Augusta CC: Louise Suggs wins her 4th Titleholders title by 1 stroke from Betsy Rawls Richard Rogers' "No Strings" opens on Broadway Robert Foster sets record by staying underwater 13 m 42.5 s WILX TV channel 10 in Lansing, MI (NBC) begins broadcasting Key Largo Coral Reef Preserve established (1st underwater park) National Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona dedicated South Africa withdraws from British Commonwealth Richard Rodger's musical "No Strings" opens at 84th St Theater NYC for 580 performances Five research groups announce the discovery of anti-matter Donald Jackson of Canada is 1st to land a triple lutz ice skate jump KATU TV channel 2 in Portland, OR (ABC) begins broadcasting

Event of Interest

1962 Wilt Chamberlain is 1st to score 4,000 pts in an NBA season


Civil rights protesters beaten in “Bloody Sunday” attack

On March 7, 1965, in Selma, Alabama,ਊ 600-person civil rights demonstration ends in violence when marchers are attacked and beaten by white state troopers and sheriff’s deputies. The day&aposs events became known as "Bloody Sunday."

The demonstrators—led by civil rights activists John Lewis of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Hosea Williams of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference—were commemorating the recent fatal shooting of Jimmie Lee Jackson, a 26-year-old church deacon, by state trooper James Bonard Fowler. The group planned to march theꁔ miles from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital. Just as they crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge outside Selma, they were ordered to disperse. Moments later, policeਊssaulted them with tear gas, bullwhips and billy clubs. Lewis, then 25, was one of 17 marchers hospitalized dozens more were treated for injuries. 

The violence was broadcast on TV and recounted in newspapers, spurring demonstrations in 80 cities across the nation within days. On March 9, Martin Luther King, Jr. led more than 2,000 marchers to the Edmund Pettus Bridge. On March 15, President Lyndon B. Johnson spoke on the need for voting reform, something activists in Selma had long been fighting for: “There is no issue of states’ rights or national rights. There is only the struggle for human rights. We have already waited 100 years and more, and the time for waiting is gone.”


Martin Luther King, Jr. begins the march from Selma to Montgomery

In the name of African American voting rights, 3,200 civil rights demonstrators in Alabama, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., begin a historic march from Selma to Montgomery, the state’s capital. Federalized Alabama National Guardsmen and FBI agents were on hand to provide safe passage for the march, which twice had been turned back by Alabama state police at Selma’s Edmund Pettus Bridge.

In 1965, King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) decided to make the small town of Selma the focus of their drive to win voting rights for African Americans in the South. Alabama’s governor, George Wallace, was a vocal opponent of the African-American civil rights movement, and local authorities in Selma had consistently thwarted efforts by the Dallas County Voters League and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to register local Black citizens.

Although Governor Wallace promised to prevent it from going forward, on March 7 some 600 demonstrators, led by SCLC leader Hosea Williams and SNCC leader John Lewis, began the 54-mile march to the state capital. After crossing Edmund Pettus Bridge, they were met by Alabama state troopers and posse men who attacked them with nightsticks, tear gas and whips after they refused to turn back.

Several of the protesters were severely beaten, and others ran for their lives. The incident was captured on national television and outraged many Americans.

King, who was in Atlanta at the time, promised to return to Selma immediately and lead another attempt. On March 9, King led another marching attempt, but turned the marchers around when state troopers again blocked the road.

On March 21, U.S. Army troops and federalized Alabama National Guardsmen escorted the marchers across Edmund Pettus Bridge and down Highway 80. When the highway narrowed to two lanes, only 300 marchers were permitted, but thousands more rejoined the Alabama Freedom March as it came into Montgomery on March 25.

On the steps of the Alabama State Capitol, King addressed live television cameras and a crowd of 25,000, just a few hundred feet from the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where he got his start as a minister in 1954.


Historical Events in 1965

    51st Rose Bowl: #4 Michigan beats #8 Oregon State, 34-7 31st Sugar Bowl: #7 LSU beats Syracuse, 13-10 31st Orange Bowl: #5 Texas beats #1 Alabama, 21-17 49 year old former England international soccer forward Stanley Matthews becomes only player to be awarded a knighthood while still playing (Stoke City) Ayub Khan elected President of Pakistan

Event of Interest

Jan 2 Martin Luther King Jr. begins a drive to register black voters

Contract of Interest

Jan 2 New York Jets sign future Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Joe Namath to a $427,000 contract over three years (pro football record at the time)

Event of Interest

Jan 4 LBJ's "Great Society" State of the Union Address

    Geoff Boycott takes 3-47 against South Africa, his best Test bowling France announces it will convert $150 million of its currency to gold Twin brothers are in held in custody in London charged with abduction and murder

NFL Pro Bowl

Jan 10 15th NFL Pro Bowl, LA Memorial Coliseum: Western Conference beats Eastern Conference, 34-14 MVPs: Fran Tarkenton, Minnesota Vikings, QB Terry Barr, Detroit Lions, DB

    WKBD TV channel 50 in Detroit, MI (IND) begins broadcasting "Hullabaloo" premieres on NBC-TV At 10:58 am PST burn up a nuclear rocket in Nevada

NBA All-Star Game

Jan 13 15th NBA All-Star Game, St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Mo: East beats West, 124-123 MVP: Jerry Lucas, Cincinnati Royals, F

    Rock group Who releases first album "I Can't Explain" Washtenaw Community College in Ann Arbor, Michigan, forms Soviet underground nuclear test creates the atomic lake Chagan, Kazakhstan

NBA Record

Jan 15 One of the biggest trades in NBA history San Francisco Warriors send Wilt Chamberlain to the Philadelphia 76ers for Connie Dierking, Lee Shaffer, Paul Neumann and cash

    "Oh What a Lovely War" closes at Broadhurst NYC after 125 performances "Outer Limits" last airs on ABC-TV 4th AFL All Star Game, Jeppeson Stadium, Houston: Western Division beats Eastern Division, 38-14 MVPs: Keith Lincoln, LA Chargers, RB Willie Brown, Denver Broncos, DB The Searchers' "Love Potion Number 9" peaks at #3 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR H L de Vries appointed Dutch governor of Suriname The Byrds record "Mr Tambourine Man"

Meeting of Interest

Jan 20 Generalissimo Francisco Franco meets with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain

    Iranian premier Hassan Ali Mansur assassinated by 17-year-old Mohammad Bokharaei, a member of the Fadayan-e Islam US launches TIROS 9 weather satellite "King Family Show" (musical variety) premieres on ABC TV BPAA All-Star Tournament won by Dick Weber

Event of Interest

Jan 23 Boston Celtic center Bill Russell misses all 14 shots in 104-100 loss to Philadelphia 76ers, led by newly acquired Wilt Chamberlain

    South Vietnam military coup under general Nguyen Khanh 1st ground station-to-aircraft radio communication via satellite Groundbreaking for "Dragon Gateway" at Grant Avenue "The Who" make their 1st appearance on British television programme "Ready Steady Go!" "The Name Game" by Shirley Ellis hits #3

Funeral of Winston Churchill

Jan 30 State funeral of Winston Churchill at St Paul's Cathedral in London. Then world's largest ever state funeral.

    19th century pitcher James 'Pud' Galvin elected to Baseball Hall of Fame Dutch Queen Juliana opens Brienenoord Bridge in Rotterdam Martin Luther King Jr. and 700 demonstrators arrested in Selma, Alabama

Event of Interest

Feb 1 Peter Jennings, 26, becomes anchor of ABC's nightly news

Event of Interest

Feb 1 Former world heavyweight boxing champion Floyd Patterson beats Canadian George Chuvalo by unanimous decision in a 12-round non-title clash at New York’s Madison Square Garden 'The Ring' names bout Fight of the Year.

Australian Open Women's Tennis

Feb 1 Australian Championships Women's Tennis: Australian Margaret Smith wins 6th straight home singles title beats Maria Bueno of Brazil 5-7, 6-4, 5-2 Bueno retired injured

Australian Men's Tennis Open

Feb 1 Australian Championship Men's Tennis: Roy Emerson wins 3rd consecutive Australian title beats fellow Australian Fred Stolle 7-9, 2-6, 6-4, 7-5, 6-1

    Joe Orton's "Loot" premieres in Brighton 105 USAF cadets resigned for cheating in exams Geraldine McCullough wins Widener Gold Medal for Sculpture Orbiting Solar Observatory 2 launches into Earth orbit (552/636 km) Braves offer Milwaukee $500,000 to terminate their lease a year earlier, the proposal is turned down US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Beursschouwburg opens in Brussels "Kelly" opens & closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC Righteous Brothers "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" hits #1

Event of Interest

    Operations begin at Grupo Folklorico Antiyano on Curacao US begins regular bombing & strafing of N Vietnam WVIZ TV channel 25 in Cleveland, Ohio (PBS) begins broadcasting Eastern DC-7B crashes into Atlantic off Jones Beach NJ, kills 84

Event of Interest

Feb 8 The Supremes release "Stop In the Name of Love"

    President Johnson deploys 1st US combat troops to South Vietnam, with 3500 marines sent to protect key US airbase near Da Nang

Golden Globes

    Braves propose to pay 5 cents from each ticket to bring a new team to Milwaukee KHFI (now KBVO) TV channel 42 in Austin, TX (NBC) begins broadcasting

Event of Interest

    Red Maple Leaf Flag becomes the official flag of Canada "Baker Street" opens at Broadway Theater NYC for 313 performances Pegasus 1 launched to detect micro-meteors US Ranger 8 launched, will transmit 7,137 lunar pictures US-Japan baseball relations suspended over Masanori Murakami dispute "Fade Out-Fade In" opens at Mark Hellinger Theater NYC for 72 performances 27 copper miners die in avalanche, Granduc Mountain, British Columbia Frank Gifford announces his retirement from football for broadcasting

Event of Interest

Feb 18 Church deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson is beaten and shot during a peaceful march in Marion, Alabama. His death 8 days later inspires the Selma to Montgomery marches.

    The Gambia becomes independent from the United Kingdom NFL adds 6th official - the line judge Beatles record "That Means A Lot" unhappy with the results, it was given to P.J. Proby to record, the Beatles version was not released until 1996 on Anthology 2 Ranger 8 makes hard landing on the Moon, returns photos, other data Turkish government of Uerguplu forms

Event of Interest

Feb 21 Rights activist Malcolm X is shot dead by Nation of Islam followers at Audubon Ballroom in New York City

    USSR launches Kosmos 57 into earth orbit (Voskhod Test) Constance Baker Motley elected Manhattan Borough president Beatles begin filming "Help" in Bahamas East German president Ulbricht visits Egypt Dutch government of Marijnen falls West Germany ceases military aid to Tanzania

Event of Interest

Feb 27 Hugh Martin and Timothy Gray's musical "High Spirits", based on Noel Coward's "Blithe Spirit", closes at Alvin Theater NYC after 375 performances

    Dutch Marijnen government resigns France performs Underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria Australian swimming authorities suspend triple Olympic gold medal winning sprinter Dawn Fraser for 10 years for misconduct at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics Gas explosion kills 28 in apartment complex in La Salle, Quebec WPSX TV channel 3 in Clearfield, PA (PBS) begins broadcasting Montcalm Community College founded in Sidney, Mich

Film Release

Mar 2 One of the most popular musical films of all time, "The Sound of Music", starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, is released (Academy Awards Best Picture 1966)

    US Air Force begins Operation Rolling Thunder, a three year sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam The Temptations' "My Girl" reaches #1 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR David Attenbrough became the new controller of BBC2 1st performance of Walter Piston's 8th Symphony (his last), by the Boston Symphony, conducted by Erich Leinsdorf

Event of Interest

Mar 7 Alabama state troopers and 600 black protesters clash in Selma during "Bloody Sunday", protesters, including future congressman John Lewis beaten and hospitalized

    Bruce Taylor takes 5-86 in debut innings for NZ after ton Christian-democrats win parliament in Chile First US combat forces arrive in Vietnam, on the beaches of Da Nang Dutch Princess Margriet & Pieter van Vollenhoven get engaged "I've Got a Tiger By the Tail" album by Buck Owens is released (Billboard Album of the Year 1965)

Event of Interest

Mar 11 Indonesia President Sukarno accepts qualifications of Suharto

    "Wooly Bully" single released by Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs Beatles' "Eight Days a Week" single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks

Event of Interest

Mar 13 British guitarist Eric Clapton quits the Yardbirds due to the band moving away from traditional blues Jeff Beck becomes his replacement

    Israeli cabinet approves diplomatic relations with West Germany T.G.I. Friday's 1st restaurant opens in NYC WMFE TV channel 24 in Orlando, FL (PBS) begins broadcasting Beatles announce their second film is titled "8 Arms to Hold You" later changed to "Help!"

1st Person to Walk in Space

Mar 18 Cosmonaut Alexey Leonov, leaving his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes, becomes the first person to walk in space

    A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, "30,000 Pounds of Bananas." Indonesia nationalizes all foreign oil companies Rembrandt's "Titus" sells for then record 7,770,000 guilders Stoica becomes president & Ceausescu party leader of Romania The wreck of the SS Georgiana, valued at over $50,000,000, said to have been most powerful Confederate cruiser, discovered by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence exactly 102 years after its destruction. 27th NCAA Men's Basketball Championship: UCLA beats Michigan, 91-80 Bruins' back-to-back National titles Gail Goodrich 42 points Venkataraghavan takes 8-72 v NZ at Delhi

Historic Publication

Mar 20 Civil and Women's Rights Activist Dorothy Height has her first column published in the weekly African-American newspaper called the "New York Amsterdam News"

    10th Eurovision Song Contest: France Gall of Luxembourg wins singing "Poupee de cire, poupee de son" written by Serge Gainsbourg in Naples Wales misses out on a 4th Grand Slam after losing to France, 22-13 at Stade Colombes, Paris despite winning the Five Nations Rugby Championship Martin Luther King Jr. begins march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama US Ranger 9 launched takes 5,814 pictures before lunar impact Dudley Senanayake wins his third in general elections in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) US confirms its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong

Election of Interest

Mar 22 Nicolae Ceausescu is elected General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

    Gemini 3 launched, 1st US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young) Moroccan army shoots on demonstrators, about 100 killed US Ranger 9 strikes Moon, 10 miles (16 km) NE of crater Alphonsus Martin Luther King Jr. leads 25,000 to state capitol in Montgomery, Alabama West German Bondsdag extends war crimes retribution 119th Grand National: Tommy Smith becomes first American jockey to win GN aboard US trained and owned horse, Jay Trump at 100/6 Vietnam War: A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, killing 22 and wounding 183 others Iberia Airlines Convair 440 crashes into the sea on approach to Tangier killing 47 of 51 occupants South Africa worker's union leader Henry Fazzie sentenced to 10 years Syncom 3, 1st geosynchronous communications satellite, passes from civilian to military control Hochhuths play "Stellvertreter" banned in Italy 1st atomic powered spacecraft (snap) launched The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft plane is unveiled.

Academy Awards

Apr 5 37th Academy Awards: "My Fair Lady", Rex Harrison (My Fair Lady) & Julie Andrews (Mary Poppins) win awards

    Lava Lamp Day celebrated US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Intelsat 1 ("Early Bird") 1st commercial geosynchronous communications satellite launched Bevan Congdon makes a stumping as 12th man NZ v Pakistan India & Pakistan forces engage in a border fight Beatles "Ticket to Ride" is released in UK

Baseball Record

Apr 9 1st game at Astrodome, Houston beats Yankees 2-1 in exhibition as Mickey Mantle hits 1st indoor homerun

US Masters Golf

Apr 11 29th US Masters Tournament, Augusta National GC: Jack Nicklaus wins the 2nd of his 6 Masters titles with a tournament record 271 (−17) beats Gary Player and Arnold Palmer by a record 9 strokes

    40 tornadoes strike US midwest killing 272 & injuring 5,000 1st NL game at Houston's Astrodome (Phillies beat Astros 2-0) The Beatles record their single "Help" 1st US Senate black page, Lawrence W Bradford Jr, 16, appointed by New York Senator Jacob Javits 7th Grammy Awards: "The Girl From Ipanema", The Beatles win US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Theater Premiere

Apr 15 James Baldwin's play "The Amen Corner" premieres in NYC


Contents

'Good Friday' comes from the obsolete sense 'pious, holy' of the word "good". [11] Less common examples of expressions based on this obsolete sense of "good" include "the good book" for the Bible, "good tide" for "Christmas" or Shrovetide, and Good Wednesday for the Wednesday in Holy Week. [12]

A common folk etymology incorrectly analyzes "Good Friday" as a corruption of "God Friday" similar to the linguistically correct description of "goodbye" as a contraction of "God be with you". In Old English, the day was called "Long Friday" (langa frigedæg [ˈlɑŋɡɑ ˈfriːjedæj] ), and equivalents of this term are still used in Scandinavian languages and Finnish. [13]

Other languages Edit

In Latin, the name used by the Catholic Church until 1955 was Feria sexta in Parasceve ("Friday of Preparation [for the Sabbath]"). In the 1955 reform of Holy Week, it was renamed Feria sexta in Passione et Morte Domini ("Friday of the Passion and Death of the Lord"), and in the new rite introduced in 1970, shortened to Feria sexta in Passione Domini ("Friday of the Passion of the Lord").

In Dutch, Good Friday is known as Goede Vrijdag, in Frisian as Goedfreed. In German-speaking countries, it is generally referred to as Karfreitag ("Mourning Friday", with Kar from Old High German kara‚ "bewail", "grieve"‚ "mourn", which is related to the English word "care" in the sense of cares and woes), but it is sometimes also called Stiller Freitag ("Silent Friday") and Hoher Freitag ("High Friday, Holy Friday"). In the Scandinavian languages and Finnish ("pitkäperjantai"), it is called the equivalent of "Long Friday" as it was in Old English ("Langa frigedæg").

In Greek, Polish, Hungarian, Romanian and Armenian it is generally referred to as the equivalent of "Great Friday" (Μεγάλη Παρασκευή, Wielki Piątek, Nagypéntek, Vinerea Mare, Ավագ Ուրբաթ). In Bulgarian, it is called either Велики петък ("Great Friday"), or, more commonly, Разпети петък ("Crucified Friday"). In French, Italian and Spanish it is referred to as Vendredi saint and Viernes Santo ("Holy Friday"). In Arabic, it is known as "الجمعة العظيمة" ("Great Friday").

According to the accounts in the Gospels, the royal soldiers, guided by Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas received money (30 pieces of silver) [14] for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus was taken to the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest, Caiaphas. There he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled. [15]

Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying "I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us, are you the Anointed One, the Son of God?" Jesus testified ambiguously, "You have said it, and in time you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty, coming on the clouds of Heaven." The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death. [16] Peter, waiting in the courtyard, also denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had foretold.

In the morning, the whole assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar, and making himself a king. [17] Pilate authorized the Jewish leaders to judge Jesus according to their own law and execute sentencing however, the Jewish leaders replied that they were not allowed by the Romans to carry out a sentence of death. [18]

Pilate questioned Jesus and told the assembly that there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, who was in Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. Herod questioned Jesus but received no answer Herod sent Jesus back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found Jesus to be guilty Pilate resolved to have Jesus whipped and released. [19] Under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, "Crucify him" [20] Pilate's wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to "have nothing to do with this righteous man". [21] Pilate had Jesus flogged and then brought him out to the crowd to release him. The chief priests informed Pilate of a new charge, demanding Jesus be sentenced to death "because he claimed to be God's son." This possibility filled Pilate with fear, and he brought Jesus back inside the palace and demanded to know from where he came. [22]

Coming before the crowd one last time, Pilate declared Jesus innocent and washed his own hands in water to show he had no part in this condemnation. Nevertheless, Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified in order to forestall a riot. [23] and ultimately to keep his job. The sentence written was "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." Jesus carried his cross to the site of execution (assisted by Simon of Cyrene), called the "place of the Skull", or "Golgotha" in Hebrew and in Latin "Calvary". There he was crucified along with two criminals. [24]

Jesus agonized on the cross for six hours. During his last three hours on the cross, from noon to 3 pm, darkness fell over the whole land. [25] Jesus spoke from the cross, quoting the messianic Psalm 22: "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"

With a loud cry, Jesus gave up his spirit. There was an earthquake, tombs broke open, and the curtain in the Temple was torn from top to bottom. The centurion on guard at the site of crucifixion declared, "Truly this was God's Son!" [26]

Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin and a secret follower of Jesus, who had not consented to his condemnation, went to Pilate to request the body of Jesus [27] Another secret follower of Jesus and member of the Sanhedrin named Nicodemus brought about a hundred-pound weight mixture of spices and helped wrap the body of Jesus. [28] Pilate asked confirmation from the centurion of whether Jesus was dead. [29] A soldier pierced the side of Jesus with a lance causing blood and water to flow out [30] and the centurion informed Pilate that Jesus was dead. [31]

Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus' body, wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, and placed it in his own new tomb that had been carved in the rock [32] in a garden near the site of the crucifixion. Nicodemus [33] also brought 75 pounds of myrrh and aloes, and placed them in the linen with the body, in keeping with Jewish burial customs [28] They rolled a large rock over the entrance of the tomb. [34] Then they returned home and rested, because Shabbat had begun at sunset. [35] Matt. 28:1 "After the Shabbat, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb". i.e. "After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week. ". "He is not here he has risen, just as he said. ". (Matt. 28:6)

Byzantine Christians (Eastern Christians who follow the Rite of Constantinople: Orthodox Christians and Greek-Catholics) call this day "Great and Holy Friday", or simply "Great Friday". [36]

Because the sacrifice of Jesus through his crucifixion is recalled on this day, the Divine Liturgy (the sacrifice of bread and wine) is never celebrated on Great Friday, except when this day coincides with the Great Feast of the Annunciation, which falls on the fixed date of 25 March (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 25 March currently falls on 7 April of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Also on Great Friday, the clergy no longer wear the purple or red that is customary throughout Great Lent, [37] but instead don black vestments. There is no "stripping of the altar" on Holy and Great Thursday as in the West instead, all of the church hangings are changed to black, and will remain so until the Divine Liturgy on Great Saturday.

The faithful revisit the events of the day through the public reading of specific Psalms and the Gospels, and singing hymns about Christ's death. Rich visual imagery and symbolism, as well as stirring hymnody, are remarkable elements of these observances. In the Orthodox understanding, the events of Holy Week are not simply an annual commemoration of past events, but the faithful actually participates in the death and the resurrection of Jesus. [38]

Each hour of this day is the new suffering and the new effort of the expiatory suffering of the Savior. And the echo of this suffering is already heard in every word of our worship service – unique and incomparable both in the power of tenderness and feeling and in the depth of the boundless compassion for the suffering of the Savior. The Holy Church opens before the eyes of believers a full picture of the redeeming suffering of the Lord beginning with the bloody sweat in the Garden of Gethsemane up to the crucifixion on Golgotha. Taking us back through the past centuries in thought, the Holy Church brings us to the foot of the cross of Christ erected on Golgotha and makes us present among the quivering spectators of all the torture of the Savior. [39]

Great and Holy Friday is observed as a strict fast, also called the Black Fast, and adult Byzantine Christians are expected to abstain from all food and drink the entire day to the extent that their health permits. "On this Holy day neither a meal is offered nor do we eat on this day of the crucifixion. If someone is unable or has become very old [or is] unable to fast, he may be given bread and water after sunset. In this way we come to the holy commandment of the Holy Apostles not to eat on Great Friday." [39]

Matins of Holy and Great Friday Edit

The Byzantine Christian observance of Holy and Great Friday, which is formally known as The Order of Holy and Saving Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, begins on Thursday night with the Matins of the Twelve Passion Gospels. Scattered throughout this Matins service are twelve readings from all four of the Gospels which recount the events of the Passion from the Last Supper through the Crucifixion and burial of Jesus. Some churches have a candelabrum with twelve candles on it, and after each Gospel reading one of the candles is extinguished. [40]

The first of these twelve readings [41] is the longest Gospel reading of the liturgical year, and is a concatenation from all four Gospels. Just before the sixth Gospel reading, which recounts Jesus being nailed to the cross, a large cross is carried out of the sanctuary by the priest, accompanied by incense and candles, and is placed in the center of the nave (where the congregation gathers) Sēmeron Kremātai Epí Xýlou:

Today He who hung the earth upon the waters is hung upon the Cross (three times).
He who is King of the angels is arrayed in a crown of thorns.
He who wraps the Heavens in clouds is wrapped in the purple of mockery.
He who in Jordan set Adam free receives blows upon His face.
The Bridegroom of the Church is transfixed with nails.
The Son of the Virgin is pierced with a spear.
We venerate Thy Passion, O Christ (three times).
Show us also Thy glorious Resurrection. [42] [43]

  1. John 13:31-18:1 – Christ's last sermon, Jesus prays for the apostles.
  2. John 18:1–28 – The agony in the garden, the mockery and denial of Christ.
  3. Matthew 26:57–75 – The mockery of Christ, Peter denies Christ.
  4. John 18:28–19:16 – Pilate questions Jesus Jesus is condemned Jesus is mocked by the Romans.
  5. Matthew 27:3–32 – Judas commits suicide Jesus is condemned Jesus mocked by the Romans Simon of Cyrene compelled to carry the cross.
  6. Mark 15:16–32 – Jesus dies.
  7. Matthew 27:33–54 – Jesus dies.
  8. Luke 23:32–49 – Jesus dies.
  9. John 19:25–37 – Jesus dies.
  10. Mark 15:43–47 – Joseph of Arimathea buries Christ.
  11. John 19:38–42 – Joseph of Arimathea buries Christ.
  12. Matthew 27:62–66 – The Jews set a guard.

During the service, all come forward to kiss the feet of Christ on the cross. After the Canon, a brief, moving hymn, The Wise Thief is chanted by singers who stand at the foot of the cross in the center of the nave. The service does not end with the First Hour, as usual, but with a special dismissal by the priest:

May Christ our true God, Who for the salvation of the world endured spitting, and scourging, and buffeting, and the Cross, and death, through the intercessions of His most pure Mother, of our holy and God-bearing fathers, and of all the saints, have mercy on us and save us, for He is good and the Lover of mankind.

Royal Hours Edit

The next day, in the forenoon on Friday, all gather again to pray the Royal Hours, [44] a special expanded celebration of the Little Hours (including the First Hour, Third Hour, Sixth Hour, Ninth Hour and Typica) with the addition of scripture readings (Old Testament, Epistle and Gospel) and hymns about the Crucifixion at each of the Hours (some of the material from the previous night is repeated). This is somewhat more festive in character, and derives its name of "Royal" from both the fact that the Hours are served with more solemnity than normal, commemorating Christ the King who humbled himself for the salvation of mankind, and also from the fact that this service was in the past attended by the Emperor and his court. [45]

Vespers of Holy and Great Friday Edit

In the afternoon, around 3 pm, all gather for the Vespers of the Taking-Down from the Cross, [46] commemorating the Deposition from the Cross. The Gospel reading is a concatenation taken from all four of the Gospels. During the service, the body of Christ (the soma) is removed from the cross, as the words in the Gospel reading mention Joseph of Arimathea, wrapped in a linen shroud, and taken to the altar in the sanctuary.

Near the end of the service an epitaphios or "winding sheet" (a cloth embroidered with the image of Christ prepared for burial) is carried in procession to a low table in the nave which represents the Tomb of Christ it is often decorated with an abundance of flowers. The epitaphios itself represents the body of Jesus wrapped in a burial shroud, and is a roughly full-size cloth icon of the body of Christ. Then the priest may deliver a homily and everyone comes forward to venerate the epitaphios. In the Slavic practice, at the end of Vespers, Compline is immediately served, featuring a special Canon of the Crucifixion of our Lord and the Lamentation of the Most Holy Theotokos by Symeon the Logothete. [47]

Matins of Holy and Great Saturday Edit

On Friday night, the Matins of Holy and Great Saturday, a unique service known as The Lamentation at the Tomb [48] (Epitáphios Thrēnos) is celebrated. This service is also sometimes called Jerusalem Matins. Much of the service takes place around the tomb of Christ in the center of the nave. [49]

A unique feature of the service is the chanting of the Lamentations or Praises (Enkōmia), which consist of verses chanted by the clergy interspersed between the verses of Psalm 119 (which is, by far, the longest psalm in the Bible). The Enkōmia are the best-loved hymns of Byzantine hymnography, both their poetry and their music being uniquely suited to each other and to the spirit of the day. They consist of 185 tercet antiphons arranged in three parts (stáseis or "stops"), which are interjected with the verses of Psalm 119, and nine short doxastiká ("Gloriae") and Theotókia (invocations to the Virgin Mary). The three stáseis are each set to its own music, and are commonly known by their initial antiphons: Ἡ ζωὴ ἐν τάφῳ , "Life in a grave", Ἄξιον ἐστί , "Worthy it is", and Αἱ γενεαὶ πᾶσαι , "All the generations". Musically they can be classified as strophic, with 75, 62, and 48 tercet stanzas each, respectively. The climax of the Enkōmia comes during the third stásis, with the antiphon "Ō glyký mou Éar", a lamentation of the Virgin for her dead Child ("O, my sweet spring, my sweetest child, where has your beauty gone?"). The author(s) and date of the Enkōmia are unknown. Their High Attic linguistic style suggests a dating around the 6th century, possibly before the time of St. Romanos the Melodist. [ citation needed ]

At the end of the Great Doxology, while the Trisagion is sung, the epitaphios is taken in procession around the outside the church, and is then returned to the tomb. Some churches observe the practice of holding the epitaphios at the door, above waist level, so the faithful most bow down under it as they come back into the church, symbolizing their entering into the death and resurrection of Christ. The epitaphios will lay in the tomb until the Paschal Service early Sunday morning. In some churches, the epitaphios is never left alone, but is accompanied 24 hours a day by a reader chanting from the Psalter. [ citation needed ]

The Troparion (hymn of the day) of Good Friday is:

The noble Joseph, when he had taken down Thy most pure Body from the tree, wrapped it in fine linen, and anointed it with spices, and placed it in a new tomb.
Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, both now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen.
The angel came to the myrrh-bearing women at the tomb and said:
Myrrh is fitting for the dead, but Christ has shown Himself a stranger to corruption.

Day of Fasting Edit

The Catholic Church regards Good Friday and Holy Saturday as the Paschal fast, in accordance with Article 110 of Sacrosanctum Concilium. [50] In the Latin Church, a fast day is understood as having only one full meal and two collations (a smaller repast, the two of which together do not equal the one full meal) [51] [52] – although this may be observed less stringently on Holy Saturday than on Good Friday. [50]

Services on the day Edit

The Roman Rite has no celebration of Mass between the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday evening and the Easter Vigil unless a special exemption is granted for rare solemn or grave occasions by the Vatican or the local bishop. The only sacraments celebrated during this time are Baptism (for those in danger of death), Penance, and Anointing of the Sick. [53] While there is no celebration of the Eucharist, it is distributed to the faithful only in the Service of the Passion of the Lord, but can also be taken at any hour to the sick who are unable to attend this service. [54] After the Lord's Supper any candlesticks and altar cloths, cross or crosses are removed leaving it bare so that they may be returned in-ceremony on Easter Sunday which memorialises the day of Christ's resurrection. [55] It is also customary to empty the holy water fonts in preparation of the blessing of the water at the Easter Vigil. [56] Traditionally, no bells are rung on Good Friday or Holy Saturday until the Easter Vigil. [57]

The Celebration of the Passion of the Lord takes place in the afternoon, ideally at three o'clock however, for pastoral reasons (especially in countries where Good Friday is not a public holiday), it is permissible to celebrate the liturgy earlier, even shortly after midday, or at a later hour up until 9pm. [58] [59] Anyone who takes part in the Celebration of the Passion of the Lord does not pray the office of Vespers of Good Friday.

The vestments used are red (more commonly) or black (more traditionally). [60] Before 1970, vestments were black except for the Communion part of the rite when violet was used. [61] Before the reforms of the Holy Week Liturgies in 1955, black was used throughout. Before the 1955 Holy Week Reforms, Holy Communion was not distributed to the faithful on Good Friday. [62] If a bishop or abbot celebrates, he wears a plain mitre (mitra simplex). [63]

Three Hours' Agony Edit

The Three Hours' Devotion based on the Seven Last Words from the Cross begins at noon and ends at 3 pm, the time that the Christian tradition teaches that Jesus died on the cross. [64]

Liturgy Edit

The Good Friday liturgy consists of three parts: the Liturgy of the Word, the Veneration of the Cross, and the Holy Communion.

  • The Liturgy of the Word consists of the clergy and assisting ministers entering in complete silence, without any singing. They then silently make a full prostration. This signifies the abasement (the fall) of (earthly) humans. [65] It also symbolizes the grief and sorrow of the Church. [66] Then follows the Collect prayer, and the reading or chanting of Isaiah 52:13–53:12, Hebrews 4:14–16, Hebrews 5:7–9, and the Passion account from the Gospel of John, traditionally divided between three deacons, [67] yet usually read by the celebrant and two other readers. In the older form of the Mass known as the Tridentine Mass the readings for Good Friday are taken from Exodus 12:1-11 and the Gospel according to St. John (John 18:1-40) (John 19:1-42).
  • The Great Intercessions also known as orationes sollemnes immediately follows the Liturgy of the Word and consists of a series of prayers for the Church, the Pope, the clergy and laity of the Church, those preparing for baptism, the unity of Christians, the Jews, those who do not believe in Christ, those who do not believe in God, those in public office, and those in special need. [68] After each prayer intention, the deacon calls the faithful to kneel for a short period of private prayer the celebrant then sums up the prayer intention with a Collect-style prayer. As part of the pre-1955 Holy Week Liturgy, the kneeling was omitted only for the prayer for the Jews. [69]
  • The Adoration of the Cross has a crucifix, not necessarily the one that is normally on or near the altar at other times of the year, solemnly unveiled and displayed to the congregation, and then venerated by them, individually if possible and usually by kissing the wood of the cross, while hymns and the Improperia ("Reproaches") with the Trisagion hymn are chanted. [70]
  • Holy Communion is bestowed according to a rite based on that of the final part of Mass, beginning with the Lord's Prayer, but omitting the ceremony of "Breaking of the Bread" and its related acclamation, the Agnus Dei. The Eucharist, consecrated at the Evening Mass of the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday, is distributed at this service. [71] Before the Holy Week reforms of Pope Pius XII in 1955, only the priest received Communion in the framework of what was called the Mass of the Presanctified, which included the usual Offertory prayers, with the placing of wine in the chalice, but which omitted the Canon of the Mass. [72] The priest and people then depart in silence, and the altar cloth is removed, leaving the altar bare except for the crucifix and two or four candlesticks. [73]

Stations of the Cross Edit

In addition to the prescribed liturgical service, the Stations of the Cross are often prayed either in the church or outside, and a prayer service may be held from midday to 3.00 pm, known as the Three Hours' Agony. In countries such as Malta, Italy, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Spain, processions with statues representing the Passion of Christ are held. [ citation needed ]

In Rome, since the papacy of John Paul II, the heights of the Temple of Venus and Roma and their position opposite the main entrance to the Colosseum have been used to good effect as a public address platform. This may be seen in the photograph below where a red canopy has been erected to shelter the Pope as well as an illuminated cross, on the occasion of the Way of the Cross ceremony. The Pope, either personally or through a representative, leads the faithful through meditations on the stations of the cross while a cross is carried from there to the Colosseum. [ citation needed ]

In Polish churches, a tableau of Christ's Tomb is unveiled in the sanctuary. Many of the faithful spend long hours into the night grieving at the Tomb, where it is customary to kiss the wounds on the Lord's body. A life-size figure of Jesus lying in his tomb is widely visited by the faithful, especially on Holy Saturday. The tableaux may include flowers, candles, figures of angels standing watch, and the three crosses atop Mt Calvary, and much more. Each parish strives to come up with the most artistically and religiously evocative arrangement in which the Blessed Sacrament, draped in a filmy veil, is prominently displayed. [ citation needed ]

Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ Edit

The Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus suffered during his Passion on Good Friday. [74] These Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ do not involve a petition for a beneficiary, but aim to "repair the sins" against Jesus. Some such prayers are provided in the Raccolta Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See in 1898) which also includes prayers as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary. [75] [76] [77] [78]

In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus. [79]

Pope John Paul II referred to Acts of Reparation as the "unceasing effort to stand beside the endless crosses on which the Son of God continues to be crucified". [80]

Novena to the Divine Mercy Edit

The Novena to the Divine Mercy begins on that day and lasts until the Saturday before the Feast of Mercy. Both holidays are strictly connected, as the mercy of God flows from the Heart of Jesus that was pierced on the Cross. [81] [82]

Anglican Communion Edit

The 1662 Book of Common Prayer did not specify a particular rite to be observed on Good Friday but local custom came to mandate an assortment of services, including the Seven Last Words from the Cross and a three-hour service consisting of Matins, Ante-communion (using the Reserved Sacrament in high church parishes) and Evensong. In recent times, [ when? ] revised editions of the Prayer Book and Common Worship have re-introduced pre-Reformation forms of observance of Good Friday corresponding to those in today's Roman Catholic Church, with special nods to the rites that had been observed in the Church of England prior to the Henrican, Edwardian and Elizabethan reforms, including Creeping to the Cross. [ citation needed ]

Lutheran Church Edit

In Lutheran tradition from the 16th to the 20th century, Good Friday was the most important religious holiday, and abstention from all worldly works was expected. During that time, Lutheranism had no restrictions on the celebration of the Eucharist on Good Friday on the contrary, it was a prime day on which to receive the Eucharist, and services were often accentuated by special music such as the St Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach. [83]

More recently, Lutheran liturgical practice has recaptured Good Friday as part of the larger sweep of the great Three Days: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Vigil of Easter. The Three Days remain one liturgy which celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus. As part of the liturgy of the Three Days, Lutherans generally fast from the Eucharist on Good Friday. Rather, it is celebrated in remembrance of the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday and at the Vigil of Easter. One practice among Lutheran churches is to celebrate a tenebrae service on Good Friday, typically conducted in candlelight and consisting of a collection of passion accounts from the four gospels. While being called "Tenebrae" it holds little resemblance to the now-suppressed Catholic monastic rite of the same name. [84] The Good Friday liturgy appointed in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, the worship book of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, specifies a liturgy similar to the revised Roman Catholic liturgy. A rite for adoration of the crucified Christ includes the optional singing of the Solemn Reproaches in an updated and revised translation which eliminates some of the anti-Jewish overtones in previous versions. Many Lutheran churches have Good Friday services, such as the Three Hours' Agony centered on the remembrance of the "Seven Last Words," sayings of Jesus assembled from the four gospels, while others hold a liturgy that places an emphasis on the triumph of the cross, and a singular biblical account of the Passion narrative from the Gospel of John. [ citation needed ]

Along with observing a general Lenten fast, [83] many Lutherans emphasize the importance of Good Friday as a day of fasting within the kalendar. [6] [7] A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent recommends the Lutheran guideline to "Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day, usually without meat". [85]

Methodist Church Edit

Many Methodist denominations commemorate Good Friday with fasting, [86] as well as a service of worship based on the Seven Last Words from the Cross this liturgy is known as the Three Hours Devotion as it starts at noon and concludes at 3 pm, the latter being the time that Jesus died on the cross. [87] [88]

Moravian Church Edit

Moravians hold a Lovefeast on Good Friday as they receive Holy Communion on Maundy Thursday.

Communicants of the Moravian Church practice the Good Friday tradition of cleaning gravestones in Moravian cemeteries. [9]

Reformed Churches Edit

In the Reformed tradition, Good Friday is one of the evangelical feasts and is thus widely observed with church services, which feature the Solemn Reproaches in the pattern of Psalm 78, towards the end of the liturgy. [89]

Other Christian traditions Edit

It is not uncommon for some communities to hold interdenominational services on Good Friday.

In many countries with a strong Christian tradition such as Australia, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, the countries of the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand, [90] [91] [92] Peru, the Philippines, Portugal, the Scandinavian countries, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela, the day is observed as a public or federal holiday. In the United States, 12 states observe Good Friday as state holiday: Connecticut, Texas, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina and North Dakota. One associated custom is strict adherence to the Black Fast to 3pm or 6pm, [93] where only water can be consumed or restricted handout of bread, herbs and salt. St. Ambrose, St. Chrysostom and St. Basil attest to the practice. The processions of the day, hymns "Crux fidelis" by King John of Portugal, and Eberlin's "Tenebrae factae sunt", followed by "Vexilla Regis" is sung, translated from Latin as the standards of the King advance, and then follows a ceremony that is not a real Mass, it is called the "Mass of the Pre-Sanctified.". This custom is respected also by forgoing the Mass, this is to take heed to the solemnity of the Sacrifice of Calvary. This is where the host of the prior day is placed at the altar, incensed, elevated so "that it may be seen by the people" and consumed. Germany and some other countries have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, that are seen as profaning the solemn nature of the day. [94] [95]

Australia and New Zealand Edit

Good Friday is a holiday under state and territory laws in all states and territories in Australia. [96] Generally speaking, shops in all Australian states (but not in the two territories of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) are required to remain closed for the duration of Good Friday, although there are certain shops which are permitted to open and other shops can apply for exemptions. All schools and universities close on Good Friday in Australia, and Good Friday falls within the school holidays in most years in all states and territories except the Northern Territory, although many states now commence their school holidays in early April regardless of Easter. In 2018, for example, when Good Friday fell on 30 March, only Queensland and Victoria had school holidays which coincided with Good Friday. [97] The vast majority of businesses are closed on Good Friday, although many recreational businesses, such as the Sydney Royal Easter Show, open on Good Friday as among non-religious families Good Friday is a popular day to indulge in such activities. In New Zealand, Good Friday is a legal holiday [98] and is a day of mandatory school closure for all New Zealand state and integrated schools. [99] Good Friday is also a restricted trading day in New Zealand, which means that unexempted shops are not permitted to open on this day. [100]

Canada Edit

In Canada, Good Friday is a federal statutory holiday. In the province of Quebec "employers can choose to give the day off either on Good Friday or Easter Monday." [101]

Cuba Edit

In an online article posted on Catholic News Agency by Alejandro Bermúdez on 31 March 2012, Cuban President Raúl Castro, with the Communist Party and his advisers, decreed that Good Friday that year would be a holiday. This was Castro's response to a request made personally to him by Pope Benedict XVI during the latter's Apostolic Visitation to the island and León, Mexico that month. The move followed the pattern of small advances in Cuba's relations with the Vatican, mirroring Pope John Paul II's success in getting Fidel Castro to declare Christmas Day a holiday. [102] Both Good Friday and Christmas are now annual holidays in Cuba.

Hong Kong Edit

In Hong Kong, Good Friday was designated a public holiday in the Holidays Ordinance, 1875. [103] Good Friday continues to be a holiday after the transfer of sovereignty from the UK to China in 1997. [104] Government offices, banks, post offices and most offices are closed on Good Friday.

Ireland Edit

In the Republic of Ireland, Good Friday is not an official public holiday, but most non-retail businesses close for the day. Up until 2018 it was illegal to sell alcoholic beverages on Good Friday, with some exceptions, so pubs and off-licences generally closed. [105] Critics of the ban included the catering and tourism sector, but surveys showed that the general public were divided on the issue. [106] [107] In Northern Ireland, a similar ban operates until 5 pm on Good Friday. [108]

Malaysia Edit

Although Malaysia is a Muslim majority country, Good Friday is declared as a public holiday in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia as there is a significant Christian indigenous population in both states. [109]

Malta Edit

The Holy Week commemorations reach their peak on Good Friday as the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the passion of Jesus. Solemn celebrations take place in all churches together with processions in different villages around Malta and Gozo. During the celebration, the narrative of the passion is read in some localities, while the Adoration of the Cross follows. Good Friday processions take place in Birgu, Bormla, Għaxaq, Luqa, Mosta, Naxxar, Paola, Qormi, Rabat, Senglea, Valletta, Żebbuġ (Città Rohan) and Żejtun. Processions in Gozo will be in Nadur, Victoria (St. George and Cathedral), Xagħra and Żebbuġ, Gozo. [ citation needed ]

Philippines Edit

In the predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines, the day is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross, the chanting of the Pasyón, and performances of the Senákulo or Passion play. Some devotees engage in self-flagellation and even have themselves crucified as expressions of penance despite health risks and strong disapproval from the Church. [110]

Church bells are not rung and Masses are not celebrated, while television features movies, documentaries and other shows focused on the religious event and other topics related to the Catholic faith, broadcasting mostly religious content. Malls and shops are generally closed, as are restaurants as it is the second of three public holidays within the week. [ citation needed ]

After three o'clock in the afternoon (the time at which Jesus is traditionally believed to have died), the faithful venerate the cross in the local church and follow the procession of the Burial of Jesus.

In Cebu and many parts of the Visayan Islands, people usually eat binignit and biko as a form of fasting. [112] [113]

Spain Edit

United Kingdom Edit

In the UK, Good Friday was historically a common law holiday and is recognised as an official public holiday [115] (also known as a Bank Holiday). All state schools are closed and most businesses treat it as a holiday for staff however, many retail stores now remain open. Government services in Northern Ireland operate as normal on Good Friday, substituting Easter Tuesday for the holiday.

There has traditionally been no horse racing on Good Friday in the UK. However, in 2008, betting shops and stores opened for the first time on this day [116] and in 2014 Lingfield Park and Musselburgh staged the UK's first Good Friday race meetings. [117] [118] The BBC has for many years introduced its 7 am News broadcast on Radio 4 on Good Friday with a verse from Isaac Watts' hymn "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross".

United States Edit

In the United States, Good Friday is not a government holiday at the federal level however, individual states, counties and municipalities may observe the holiday. Good Friday is a state holiday in Connecticut, [119] Delaware, [120] Florida, [121] Hawaii, [122] Indiana, [123] Kentucky (half-day), [124] Louisiana, [125] New Jersey, [126] North Carolina, [127] North Dakota, [128] Tennessee [129] and Texas. [130] [131] State and local government offices and courts are closed, as well as some banks and post offices in these states, and in those counties and municipalities where Good Friday is observed as a holiday. Good Friday is also a holiday in the U.S. territories of Guam, [132] U.S. Virgin Islands [133] and Puerto Rico. [134]

The stock markets are closed on Good Friday, [135] [136] but the foreign exchange and bond trading markets open for a partial business day. [137] [138] Most retail stores remain open, while some of them may close early. Public schools and universities are often closed on Good Friday, either as a holiday of its own, or as part of spring break. The postal service operates, and banks regulated by the federal government do not close for Good Friday. [139]

In some governmental contexts Good Friday has been referred to by a generic name such as "spring holiday". [140] [141] [142] In 1999, in the case of Bridenbaugh v. O'Bannon, an Indiana state employee sued the governor for giving state employees Good Friday as a day off. The US Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against the plaintiff, stating that the government could give state employees a paid day off when that day is a religious holiday, including Good Friday, but only so long as the state can provide a valid secular purpose that coincides with the obvious religious purpose of the holiday. [143]

Dates for Good Friday, 2018–2033
Year Western Eastern
2018 March 30 April 6
2019 April 19 April 26
2020 April 10 April 17
2021 April 2 April 30
2022 April 15 April 22
2023 April 7 April 14
2024 March 29 May 3
2025 April 18 April 18
2026 April 3 April 10
2027 March 26 April 30
2028 April 14 April 14
2029 March 30 April 6
2030 April 19 April 26
2031 April 11 April 11
2032 March 26 April 30
2033 April 15 April 22

Good Friday is the Friday before Easter, which is calculated differently in Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity (see Computus for details). Easter falls on the first Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon, the full moon on or after 21 March, taken to be the date of the vernal equinox. The Western calculation uses the Gregorian calendar, while the Eastern calculation uses the Julian calendar, whose 21 March now corresponds to the Gregorian calendar's 3 April. The calculations for identifying the date of the full moon also differ. [ citation needed ]

In Eastern Christianity, Easter can fall between 22 March and 25 April on Julian Calendar (thus between 4 April and 8 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar, during the period 1900 and 2099), so Good Friday can fall between 20 March and 23 April, inclusive (or between 2 April and 6 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar). [ citation needed ]

Good Friday assumes a particular importance in the plot of Richard Wagner's music drama Parsifal, which contains an orchestral interlude known as the "Good Friday Music". [144]

Some Baptist congregations, [145] the Philadelphia Church of God, [146] and some non-denominational churches oppose the observance of Good Friday, regarding it as a so-called papist tradition, and instead observe the Crucifixion of Jesus on Wednesday to coincide with the Jewish sacrifice of the Passover Lamb (which some/many Christians believe is an Old Testament pointer to Jesus Christ). A Wednesday Crucifixion of Jesus allows for him to be in the tomb ("heart of the earth") for three days and three nights as he told the Pharisees he would be (Matthew 12:40), rather than two nights and a day (by inclusive counting, as was the norm at that time) if he had died on a Friday. [147] [148] Preparation Day (14 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar) – which is the day before Passover (15 Nisan), instead of the Friday morning as the Synoptic Gospels refer to the sabbath and they believe this refers to a "high sabbath" (John 19:31) which occurs on feast days, and not the ordinary weekly sabbath.

Further support for a Wednesday crucifixion based on Matthew 12:40 includes the Jewish belief that death was not considered official until the beginning of the fourth day, which is disallowed with the traditional Friday afternoon to Sunday morning period of time. As "the Jews require a sign" (1 Corinthians 1:22), the resurrection of Christ is thus invalidated with the shorter interval, since it can thus be claimed that Christ could have only 'swooned,' rather than actually died. Additional rationale includes Daniel's statement concerning the "sacrifice and the oblation to cease" (Daniel 9:27) "in the midst of the week," the middle day of the week being Wednesday. This occurred when the vail in the temple was torn in two (Matthew 27:51).


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25 Major Events That Have Happened Since The Birth Of The Internet

It’s been more than a quarter of a century since the web was invented, a whole 30 years! And the world has changed a hell of a lot since. Change is what drives our world forward and sometimes, unfortunately, backwards. Still, for 2-3 steps forward, sometimes one step backward is required. Otherwise, we don’t learn. Anyways, history has taught us a very important lesson and that is that we don’t learn from history. Well, maybe we tend to repeat history’s same mistakes, but at least, we’re trying.

From the fall of the Berlin Wall to the death of Steve Jobs and the Facebook acquisition of WhatsApp, a lot has happened. Saddam Hussein was caught and executed in a very controversial manner which led many to question our “modern world ways” and our “betterness” in comparison to the what is called “the third world”. In these 30 years since the invention of the web a lot of disasters occurred, starting with the 2001 twin towers attack, 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and the worst aviation show disaster in history. Also, good things came to be, like Nelson Mandela’s walk to freedom, the tracing of the HIV Virus or the successful cloning of human stem cells.

A lot of things happened and a lot more might happen in the years to come. We hope it’s for the better. Maybe AI will take away most of our troubles and the post-apocalyptic movies such as Terminator, were just a bit too “imaginative”. Technology is moving forward very fast, programming seems like the top occupation these days and there are also huge improvements into the DNA programming and genetics which could lead to the cure of cancer. Let’s hope we get all these right and be here to talk about the best 30 years in the history of mankind.

Now, here’s 25 things that have happened since the birth of the internet.

1989: The Berlin War Was Taken Down

The Berlin was was demolished in 1989. Citizens from both sides of the wall uses hammers and axes to smash away at the wall until nothing was left.

1990: Nelson Mandela Was Released

Nelson Mandela walked to freedom in 1990. Nelson Mandela was imprisoned in 1962 after he had led a sabotage campaign against the National Party’s white-only government. He served a total of 27 years in prison.

1991: $500 million Art Heist

20 of Van Goghs works were stolen from a museum, the estimated value thought to be $500 million US dollars.

1992: The 1992 Summer Olympics In Spain

The 1992 Summer Olympics were the last competition to be staged in the same year as the Winter Olympics. Moreover, the Barcelona games were the first summer games since the end of the Cold War.

1993: Bill Clinton Becomes US President

Bill Clinton was sworn in as the 42nd President of the United States of America.

1994: US Invades Haiti

The Operation was called “Operation Uphold Democracy” and was aimed at removing the military regime installed by the 1991 Haitian coup d’etat

1995: Oklahoma City Bombing

On April 19, 1995, a 5,000-pound bomb, exploded just outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The explosion killed 168 people, 19 of whom were children.

1996: Saudi Arabia Mid Air Collision

Due to pilot error, on the 12th November 1996, a Kazakhstan Airlines aircraft collided in mid air with a Saudi Arabian Aircraft, killing a total of 349 people.

1997: Spacecraft Pathfinder Lands On Mars

On July 4th 1997, Pathfinder landed on Mars, making it the first successful landing since 1976.

1998: Central American Hurricane Kills 10,000

On December 3rd, 1998, a hurricane rips across Central America killing an estimated 10,000 people. Thought to be the worse storm in two centuries.

1999: HIV Virus Traced

The HIV and Aids virus was thought to have originated from the Chimpanzee.

2001: September 11th World Trade Centre Attacks

The twin towers where attacked on September 11th 2001. The total loss of life in this tragic event was almost 3000.

2002: Airshow Accident In Ukraine

On 27th July 2002, an Ukranian Air Force Sukhoi SU-27 plane crashed during an aerobatics demonstration at Sknyliv airfield, in Ukraine. 77 people were killed, 543 were injured, 100 of whom needed to be taken to the hospital for head injuries, burns and bone fractures. Both pilots survived with minor injuries. It is today known as the deadliest air show in history.

2003: Saddam Hussein Was Captured

Saddam Hussein was captured on the 13th of December 2003. He was later trialed and found guilty, which lead to his execution in 2006.

2004: Indian Ocean Earthquake And Tsunami

With a magnitude of 9.3 on the Richter scale, otherwise known as the boxing day tsunami, it killed 230,000 people and is thought to be one of the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history.

2005: London Won The Bid For the 2012 Olympics

On the 6th of July London was given the bid to host the 2012 Olympics.

2006: New Horizons Sets Of For Pluto

Launched on the 19th January 2006, Horizons sets out to study Pluto and its moons. It was the fastest man-made object ever launched from Earth

2007: Burj Khalifa Became The World Tallest Building

It currently holds the world record for tallest building, and it’s easy to see why, when it is over 828 meters tall (2,716.5 feet) and more than 160 stories high.

2008: Barack Obama Elected As U.S President

Barack Obama was elected as Americas first black president on the 5th November 2008. It was either him or the first woman president of the USA.

2009: Copenhagen Summit

The Copenhagen Summit of 2009 promised to make a major change to help prevent climate change, in reality it didn’t do this.

2010: Julian Assange Arrested

Famous for WikiLeaks, a website that published U.S. military and diplomatic documents. He has been hiding in the Unite Kingdom, inside the Ecuadorian embassy in London from 2012 to 2019. In April 2019 he was arrested in London after his asylum status had expired and faces possible extradition to US.

2011: Steve Jobs Passed Away

Apple founder and visionary Steve Jobs passed away on October the 6th, 2011, after 8 years of fighting with cancer.

2012: Luxury Cruise Ship Runs Aground In Italy

This luxury cruise ship, the Costa Concordia ran aground killing 32 people because of a collision with a submerged rock.

2013: Scientists Successfully Clone Human Stem Cells

Scientists make the first embryonic-stem-cell lines from human skin cells, using the same technique that cloned Molly the sheep.

2014: Facebook Bought WhatsApp

Facebook bought WhatsApp for an astonishing $19 Billion US Dollars.

Clearly, a lot has happened since the internet was invented. It seems crazy to think some of these things happened so long ago. Time moves quickly.


This Day in History

  • 1629 - 1st game law passed in American colonies, by Virginia
  • 1832 - Mormon Joseph Smith beaten, tarred & feathered in Ohio
  • 1868 - Metropolitan Life Insurance Co forms
  • 1882 - German scientist Robert Koch discovers bacillus cause of TB  (Today is World Tuberculosis Day)
  • 1896 – A. S. Popov, a Russian Physicist, makes the first radio signal transmission in history
  • 1898 - 1st automobile sold
  • 1920 - 1st US Coast Guard air station established in Morehead City, North Carolina
  • 1930 - Planet Pluto named
  • 1937 - National Gallery of Art established by Congress
  • 1944 – During World War II, 76 prisoners begin breaking out of Stalag Luft III, a prisoner of war camp. The events are later used for the movie, The Great Escape with Steve McQueen (born on this day in 1930)
  • 1944 - 811 British bombers attack Berlin
  • 1944 - In occupied Rome, Nazis execute more than 300 civilians
  • 1947 - Congress proposes 2-term limitation on the US Presidency
  • 1947 - John D Rockefeller Jr donates NYC East River site to the United Nations
  • 1955 - 1st seagoing oil drill rig placed in service
  • 1958 – American Singer, Elvis Presley is drafted in the U.S. Army
  • 1964 - Kennedy half-dollar issued
  • 1972 – The United Kingdom imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland
  • 1981 -Nightline with Ted Koppel premieres on ABC
  • 1989 – In Prince William Sound in Alaska, the Exxon Valdez spills 240,000 barrels of petroleum after running aground
  • 2008 – Bhutan (landlocked state in South Asia, bordered by China and India) officially becomes a democracy, with its first ever general election
  • 2015 - Germanwings Flight 9525 crashes in the French Alps, killing all 150 people on board

The right to the truth is often invoked in the context of gross violations of human rights and grave breaches of humanitarian law. The relatives of victims of summary executions, enforced disappearance, missing persons, abducted children, torture, require to know what happened to them. The right to the truth implies knowing the full and complete truth as to the events that transpired, their specific circumstances, and who participated in them, including knowing the circumstances in which the violations took place, as well as the reasons for them.

Each year, on 24 March, the International Day for the Right to the Truth Concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims is observed.

This annual observance pays tribute to the memory of Monsignor Óscar Arnulfo Romero, who was murdered on 24 March 1980. Monsignor Romero was actively engaged in denouncing violations of the human rights of the most vulnerable individuals in El Salvador.

Purpose

The purpose of the Day is to:

  • Honour the memory of victims of gross and systematic human rights violations and promote the importance of the right to truth and justice
  • Pay tribute to those who have devoted their lives to, and lost their lives in, the struggle to promote and protect human rights for all
  • Recognize, in particular, the important work and values of Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero, of El Salvador, who was assasinated on 24 March 1980, after denouncing violations of the human rights of the most vulnerable populations and defending the principles of protecting lives, promoting human dignity and opposition to all forms of violence.

Background

On 21 December 2010, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 24 March as the International Day for the Right to the Truth concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims.

The date was chosen because on 24 March 1980, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero of El Salvador was assassinated, after denouncing violations of human rights.

In a study conducted in 2006 the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights concluded that the right to the truth about gross human rights violations and serious violations of human rights law is an inalienable and autonomous right, linked to the duty and obligation of the State to protect and guarantee human rights, to conduct effective investigations and to guarantee effective remedy and reparations.

The study affirms that the right to the truth implies knowing the full and complete truth as to the events that transpired, their specific circumstances, and who participated in them, including knowing the circumstances in which the violations took place, as well as the reasons for them.

In a 2009 report on the Right to the Truth, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights identified best practices for the effective implementation of this right, in particular practices relating to archives and records concerning gross violations of human rights, and programmes on the protection of witnesses and other persons involved in trials connected with such violations.

The Commission on the Truth for El Salvador was established in accordance with the Mexico Agreements of 27 April 1991 to investigate serious acts of violence that had occurred since 1980 and whose impact on society was deemed to require an urgent public knowledge of the truth. In its report of 15 March 1993, the Commission documented the facts of the assassination of Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero by pro-government forces, the so-called "death squads". He was shot dead by an assassin as he celebrated mass on 24 March 1980.


Watch the video: A glimpse of teenage life in ancient Rome - Ray Laurence (July 2022).


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